4/26/2009

世卫宣布猪流感为国际紧急事态




Mexico reports 1,300 suspected cases, including as many as 81 deaths, and takes steps to quarantine and forcibly treat patients. The U.S. confirms 11 cases, with eight more suspected.

鉴于墨西哥、美国发生了多人感染猪流感的病例,世界卫生组织(WHO)25日夜间召开首次紧急委员会议并就现状达成共识,称这是“造成国际性忧虑的公共卫生方面的紧急事态”。WHO秘书长陈冯富珍由此宣布猪流感流行为国际性紧急事态。

墨西哥卫生部长科尔多瓦周六说,迄今已有1324人怀疑因感染入院治疗,死亡81人,其中20人被确诊因患猪流感死亡。卫生官员说,大部分的死者均是青壮年,而非儿童或老人。

美国纽约州一所学校至少已有8名学生出现疑似症状。美墨边界的美国加利福尼亚州以及德克萨斯州和堪萨斯州已经证实了11起病例。

美国总统奥巴马日前曾到爆发猪流感的墨西哥访问,白宫表示,奥巴马健康情况很好。

更多信息:

共同社:世界卫生组织宣布猪流感流行为国际性紧急事态

04.26 14:55

【共同社日内瓦4月26日电】鉴于墨西哥、美国发生了多人感染猪流感的病例,世界卫生组织(WHO)25日夜间召开首次紧急委员会议并就现状达成共识,称这是“造成国际性忧虑的公共卫生方面的紧急事态”。WHO秘书长陈冯富珍由此宣布猪流感流行为国际性紧急事态。同时,墨西哥政府也于25宣布疑似因猪流感死亡的人数已达81人。

关于是否将其认定为由禽流感等变异而来的新型流感,从而提高警戒级别一事,WHO表示“需要进一步的信息”,暂缓作出决定。

WHO发言人指出,紧急事态的宣布是表明“目前事态严峻的强烈信号”,并要求各国继续关注国内外相关动向。

WHO并不准备在26日召开委员会议,但表示“将于几天后再次开会”,为可能于27日后把警戒级别从“3”升级至“4”留下了余地。

WHO: Swine influenza

Statement by WHO Director-General, Dr Margaret Chan
25 April 2009

In response to cases of swine influenza A(H1N1), reported in Mexico and the United States of America, the Director-General convened a meeting of the Emergency Committee to assess the situation and advise her on appropriate responses.

The establishment of the Committee, which is composed of international experts in a variety of disciplines, is in compliance with the International Health Regulations (2005).

The first meeting of the Emergency Committee was held on Saturday 25 April 2009.

After reviewing available data on the current situation, Committee members identified a number of gaps in knowledge about the clinical features, epidemiology, and virology of reported cases and the appropriate responses.

The Committee advised that answers to several specific questions were needed to facilitate its work.

The Committee nevertheless agreed that the current situation constitutes a public health emergency of international concern.

Based on this advice, the Director-General has determined that the current events constitute a public health emergency of international concern, under the Regulations.

Concerning public health measures, in line with the Regulations the Director-General is recommending, on the advice of the Committee, that all countries intensify surveillance for unusual outbreaks of influenza-like illness and severe pneumonia.

The Committee further agreed that more information is needed before a decision could be made concerning the appropriateness of the current phase 3.

BBC中文网:猪流感凶猛 世卫宣布构成紧急事态

2009年04月26日 格林尼治标准时间05:11北京时间 13:11发表

墨西哥居民出门开始佩戴口罩 当局发口罩 世卫紧急应对

世界卫生组织宣布,将墨西哥的"猪流感"疫情列为"国际关注的公共卫生紧急事件"。

墨西哥卫生部长说,迄今已有1324人因怀疑感染入院治疗,死亡81人。

世卫担心这种"猪流感"有全球爆发的可能,要求世界各国加强报告和监督有关疫情。

世界卫生组织总干事陈冯富珍指出,流感病毒非常难以预测,因此要提高警惕。

加强监控

她建议所有国家都应加强对非正常暴发的流感类疾病和严重肺炎的监控。

不过,世卫组织紧急委员会认为,目前尚不能确定是否应调整目前的流感大流行"三级警告"水平,需要收集更多信息。

陈冯富珍说,"我们尚未有流行病学或风险的全部资料,包括病毒会否从现时的地点扩散,但无论如何,世卫认为情况严重,必须非常密切地监察。"

81人死亡

墨西哥卫生部长科尔多瓦周六说,迄今已有1324人怀疑因感染入院治疗,死亡81人,其中20人被确诊因患猪流感死亡。

卫生官员说,大部分的死者均是青壮年,而非儿童或老人。

与此同时,墨西哥已经准备了一百万份抗病毒药物。

早些时候,墨西哥当局已下令关闭首都及附近地区的大中小学校,关闭所有公共活动场所,防止"猪流感"疫情扩散。

墨西哥城市内一切由国家或市政府主办的文化活动暂停,餐厅、酒吧、歌厅等商业场所也都停业。

目前,就连正在墨西哥举行的国际泳联世界跳水系列赛,也成了只对媒体开放的闭门比赛。

墨西哥警察佩戴口罩在医院外执勤

中国驻墨西哥大使馆已在网站公布24小时流感应急电话,并告知当地华人华侨和留学生,在有需要时拨打该电话。

美国担心

在世卫组织宣布进入高度戒备之际,美国纽约州一所学校至少已有8名学生出现疑似症状。

美墨边界的美国加利福尼亚州以及德克萨斯州和堪萨斯州已经证实了11起病例。

这些病人感染的病毒同墨西哥的H1N1"猪流感"病毒相同。

美国卫生官员表示,美国可能无力制止病毒的蔓延。

美国疾病预防及控制中心正准备向墨西哥疫区派出专家,以了解到更多的情况。

白宫官员表示,美国政府正在密切关注形势的发展。

明报:美澄清奥巴马没猪流感风险

2009年4月26日

香港《明报》编译美联社和《今日美国报》报道,美国总统奥巴马日前曾到爆发猪流感的墨西哥访问,白宫表示,奥巴马健康情况很好。

白宫发言人吉布斯说:“总统前往墨西哥的访问,并没有将他的健康置于危险中。”

奥巴马上周赴墨西哥访问,与当地高官会晤,商谈毒品走私和边境暴力等问题。

奥巴马在墨期间,于4月16日到访墨西哥国家人类学博物馆,并出席该馆的晚宴。较早前有报道指,该博物馆负责接待奥巴马的人类学家索利斯其后病逝,可能是患上猪流感,令外界关注奥巴马会否亦受到感染。

但墨西哥卫生部长科尔多瓦否认有关的报道,强调索利斯是死于肺炎。

AFP: Asia on alert over swine flu threat

AP: A glance a past flu pandemics

By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS – 13 hours ago

Flu pandemics occur whenever a new strain of the virus arises to which most people have no natural immunity. Experts believe they have been occurring at irregular intervals since at least the 16th-century.

Scientists classify flu viruses according to their surface proteins: H for hemagluttinin and N for neuraminidase. There are 16 different H types and 9 different N types, but numbers merely differentiate the strains and do not indicate greater severity.

In the 20th century, there were three flu pandemics. Global health officials are carefully watching the ongoing swine flu outbreaks in Mexico and the U.S. to see if they might spark the next one.

A glance at the last three pandemics:

_ 1918. The Spanish flu pandemic that started in 1918 was possibly the deadliest outbreak of all time. It was first identified in the U.S., but became known as the Spanish flu because it received more media attention in Spain than in other countries, which were censoring the press during World War I. The 1918 flu was an H1N1 strain — different from the one currently affecting Mexico and the U.S. — and struck mostly healthy young adults. Experts estimate it killed about 40 to 50 million people worldwide.

_ 1957. The 1957 pandemic was known as the Asian flu. It was sparked by an H2N2 strain and was first identified in China. There were two waves of illness during this pandemic; the first wave mostly hit children while the second mostly affected the elderly. It caused about 2 million deaths globally.

_ 1968. The most recent pandemic, known as the Hong Kong flu, was the mildest of the three pandemics this century. It was first spotted in Hong Kong in 1968 and it spread globally over the next two years. The people most susceptible to the virus were the elderly. About 1 million people are estimated to have been killed by this pandemic, an H3N2 flu strain.


~~~

以下内容选自4月27日《参考消息》编译外电的报道:

WHO宣布进入公共卫生紧急状态

【美联社日内瓦4月26日电】世界卫生组织(WHO)25日向世界各国发出警告,要求在北美出现几十例人感染猪流感病毒事件后,警惕任何异常流感的爆发。

WHO总干事陈冯富珍说,墨西哥和美国猪流感的爆发已构成具有国际影响的公共卫生紧急情况。

这一决定意味着各国将必须加强猪流感的病情监测和病例通报。陈冯富珍说,这种疾病有潜在传染性,因为这是一种感染到人的动物病毒。但是,WHO目前还不能确定它会否引起传染疫情。

陈是在与来自世界各国的流感专家进行磋商后才宣布进入公共卫生紧急状态的。WHO紧急委员会25日举行自2007年成立以来的首次磋商。

WHO目前还没有提出限制旅行、贸易或关闭边境方面的建议,也没有提高流行病警告等级,表示还需要搜集更多相关信息。拉丁美洲和亚洲国家已开始对机场和其它入境口岸的监测。

WHO说,到目前为止,除墨西哥和美国报告感染病例外,其它国家尚未有可疑病例的报告。但是,法国政府关闭了设在墨西哥城的法语学校,并向在当地的法国公民提供具体防疫指导。一些亚洲国家25日也开始加紧对从墨西哥入境的旅客进行检查。

墨西哥宣布隔离措施

【埃菲社墨西哥城4月25日电】墨西哥总统卡尔德龙今天签发总统令指出,政府官员可以进入国内的任何公共或私人建筑物,解散聚会,作为政府打击猪流感的措施之一。

在疫情流行期间,总统令将一直有效。总统令还规定对疑似感染者进行隔离,允许联邦、州和市政府以及专业技术和卫生救助人员采取他们认为必要的措施。

总统令指出,卫生部将负责隔离可能染病或带菌者,并限制他们的行动,允许有关当局进入任何场所或住宅,以便开展控制和消灭疫情的活动。

政府还保留自由和优先使用电话、电报和邮电服务,以及播发广播电视新闻的权力,以便明确及时地发布必要的信息和指令,并对特定人群采取预防和治疗措施。当局将对疑似带菌者的旅客、行李、交通工具、货物和其他可能成为病原裁体的物品进行检查。

此外,卫生部可以使用现有的一切公共、社会和私人的医疗和社会援助资源,控制医疗设备和卫生用品的买卖,以及一切遏制疫情所需的物品和服务的流动。

总统令要求卫生部每12小时向卡尔德龙本人通报情况,并开通面向公众的应急电话。

【埃菲社墨西哥城4月25日电】官方人士今天透露,墨西哥州当局对3天来入院治疗的25人进行认真分析,以确定他们是否感染了猪流感。

与此同时,墨西哥城也发现了24例新增疑似病例,但与前几天每天有两三倒死亡的情况不同,24日是疫情爆发以来第一次全天未有猪流感致死的病倒发生。

新西兰学生疑似感染

【法新社新西兰惠灵顿4月26日电】新西兰卫生部长托尼·赖亚尔今天说,该国10名刚从墨西哥回国的学生“可能”感染了猪流感病毒。

赖亚尔说:“卫生部官员告诉我,虽然没有确诊这些学生患的就是猪流感,但他们认为很有可能。”

这10名猪流感疑似病倒来自奥克兰朗伊托托学院,该学院3名教师和22名学生刚刚于25日结束为期3周的墨西哥之行回国。

【埃菲社华盛顿4月25日电】美国疾病控制和预防中心负责人今天指出,尽管目前国内只发观了8起猪流感病例,但猪流感病毒很容易蔓延,并且无法控制。

疾病控制和预防中心公共卫生事务负责人安·舒查特说:“要做好最坏的打算。形势非常严峻,我们非常担心。”她指出,墨西哥目前的严峻形势很快就会蔓延到美国,因为这种新的猪流感病毒像其他流感病毒一样,很容易传播,而且不可能遏制住。她表示,研发新疫苗需要几个月的时间,但目前已经在开展初步工作。

她强调,目前疾病控制和预防中心与各州的卫生部门正在协调合作,共同应对新疫情,并及时发现新增病例。但她同时也承认这项工作具有一定难度,因为有很多病毒和病菌引发的呼吸道疾病与猪流感非常相像。

4/23/2009

“雨润”检出瘦肉精,新闻报道被“公关”

(福禄祯祥4月23日文)晚上通过香港媒体得知,国内知名的“雨润”肉被安徽省质监局检出了“瘦肉精”。但是网上搜索发现,几个网站的有关新闻转载链接都“查无此页”。多个网站的症状相同,显然不是技术问题,而是被“公关”了。

据《安徽商报》22日报道,安徽省质监局从合肥市腊味思食品有限公司生产的腊肉和阜阳雨润肉类加工有限公司生产的午餐肉中检出了“克伦特罗”(瘦肉精)。21日安徽省城工商部门清查了当地市场上销售的腊肉和熟肉制品,却没有发现这两种问题产品的踪影。

23日上海的《每日经济新闻》追踪报道了这一事件。雨润集团表示含瘦肉精的午餐肉原料来自阜阳附近一家小型屠宰厂,且已被责令整改。问题产品仅在安徽附近销售,产量小,22日已全部召回并销毁。

受瘦肉精丑闻的影响,雨润食品23日的股价遭重挫。

网上搜索雨润午餐肉含瘦肉精的新闻发现,最先报道该新闻的《安徽商报》的网站(中安在线)的链接“无法显示网页”,转载此新闻的国内知名门户网站“新浪”(2)和“腾讯”的链接“找不到该页”。(不过“新民”、“搜狐”和“网易”等网站转载此新闻的页面仍在。)

多个网站的症状相同,显然不是转载此新闻的页面出现了技术故障,联想到国内奶制品的三聚氰胺丑闻爆发时出现的三鹿“公关”丑闻,难免令人怀疑“公关”再次发挥了强大的威力。

“雨润”被视为国内肉制品的龙头企业,但如今也爆出了害人性命的“瘦肉精”丑闻,无疑又给所谓的“行业潜规则”提供了新证据。

而连专门的肉制品生产商都防不胜防的“瘦肉精”,似乎又在延续着三聚氰胺的悲剧。

“产品出现瘦肉精,从某种意义上来说,我们企业也是受害者。”阜阳雨润肉类加工有限公司办公室尤先生在接受记者采访时如此表示。他告诉记者,阜阳雨润肉类加工有限公司对产品质量控制一直比较严,但由于产品原料60-70%需要从外面购买,因此,原料入厂把关成了难点。(《安徽市场报》)

这话听起来很像是“三鹿”在指责提供原奶的奶农和奶站。到底谁才是真正的受害者?只能是终端的消费者。

2个月前,广州有70多人食用了含有瘦肉精的猪肉中毒。据不完全统计,1998年以来,我国相继发生19起瘦肉精中毒事件,中毒人数达1700多人,死亡1人。

而普通的消费者又该相信谁?政府的质检部门的职责似乎就是编造“合格”的神话。本月初媒体还报道“安徽合肥猪肉产品瘦肉精检测100%合格”。质检部门偶尔查出了问题,而工商部门到市场上清查时,又总是找不到问题产品的踪影,就像我们在网上找不到报道问题产品新闻的链接一样。

每日经济新闻》声称该报记者已赶赴阜阳调查“雨润瘦肉精事件”背后隐藏的真相,让我们拭目以待,看它能否真的如宣称的那样带给我们未经”公关”的“真实的信息”。(文/福禄祯祥http://www.fulue.com/

“雨润瘦肉精”进展:

每日经济新闻:雨润:问题午餐肉原料未做瘦肉精检测 4/24/2009

“记者昨日(23日)赶赴安徽阜阳展开调查,希望能为读者带来更多信息,但结果却令人大失所望。”

每日经济新闻:问题午餐肉心理影响大 雨润向消费者道歉 4/25/2009

“《每日经济新闻》联系上了雨润指定的公关公司——骏天投资者关系有限公司……”

有关报道:

南方周末:新型“瘦肉精”现身黑市 4/23/2009

记者暗访发现:

一种不被公众熟知的新型“瘦肉精”(莱克多巴胺)潜伏于某些企业和科研机构,甚至进入了某些大型养猪场。

这种非法添加剂早已被农业部列为违禁品,但此后数年仍不断有一些专家、企业投入研发,有的高校企业甚至公然销售。

南方周末记者正面接触了销售者与研发者,其中秘密遂被揭开……

4/24/2009 00:47:13
4/25/2009 15:59:48

4/22/2009

Holland Cotter, Times Art Critic, Wins Pulitzer Prize

The 2009 Pulitzer Prize Winners - Criticism

For distinguished criticism, in print or online or both, Ten thousand dollars ($10,000).

Awarded to Holland Cotter of The New York Times for his wide ranging reviews of art, from Manhattan to China, marked by acute observation, luminous writing and dramatic storytelling.

http://www.pulitzer.org/citation/2009-Criticism


Holland Cotter.

http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/c/holland_cotter/index.html

Holland Cotter has been a staff art critic at the New York Times since 1998. In 2009, he won the Pulitzer Prize for Criticism, for coverage that included articles on art in China.

Between 1992 and 1997 he was a regular freelance writer for the paper. During the 1980s he was a contributing editor at Art in America and an editorial associate at Art News. In the 1970s, he co-edited New York Arts Journal, a tabloid-format quarterly magazine publishing fiction, poetry, and criticism.

Art in New York City has been his regular weekly beat, which he has taken to include all five boroughs and most of the city's art and culture museums. His subjects range from Italian Renaissance painting to street-based communal work by artist collectives.

For the Times, he has written widely about "non-western" art and culture. In the 1990s, he introduced readers to a broad range of Asian contemporary art as the first wave of new art from China was building and breaking. He helped bring contemporary art from India to the attention of a western audience.

Born in Connecticut in 1947, and raised in Boston, Cotter received an A.B. from Harvard College, where he studied poetry with Robert Lowell and was an editor of the Harvard Advocate. He later received an M.A. from the City University of New York in American modernism, and an M. Phil in early Indian Buddhist art from Columbia University, where he studied Sanskrit and taught Indian and Islamic art.

He has served on the board of directors of the International Association of Art Critics. He is under contract with Alfred A. Knopf for a book on New York City modernism. He is also working on a study of contemporary Indian art, and on a poetry manuscript.

Pulitzer Prize-Winning Articles

China’s Legacy: Let a Million Museums Bloom
By HOLLAND COTTER
Most art is an unsettled category in China and museums have complicated uses.

July 4, 2008artsSeries.Art
Buddha’s Caves
By HOLLAND COTTER
On the lip of the Gobi Desert, sand and tourists threaten Mogaoku’s singular art.

July 6, 2008artsSeries.China’s Female Artists Quietly Emerge
By HOLLAND COTTER
Among the hundreds of commercial galleries in China’s cities, art by women is hard to find. Yet the art is there, and it is some of the most innovative work around.

July 30, 2008artsNews.The Power of Mao, Multiplied
By HOLLAND COTTER
In the flashy new China, you can still find that famous face behind velvet ropes, as well as in art, ornaments, collectibles, postcards and flea markets.

August 3, 2008artsNews




April 20, 2009, 4:45 pm

Holland Cotter, Times Art Critic, Wins Pulitzer Prize

http://artsbeat.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/04/20/holland-cotter-times-art-critic-wins-pulitzer-prize/

By Dave Itzkoff

Holland CotterForgive the self-reference for a moment: Holland Cotter, an art critic for The New York Times, won the 2009 Pulitzer Prize for criticism, it was announced Monday afternoon. In its citation, the Pulitzer committee said it was honoring Mr. Cotter, who has been a staff critic at The Times since 1998, for “his wide ranging reviews of art, from Manhattan to China, marked by acute observation, luminous writing and dramatic storytelling.” In a speech to Times staffers this afternoon, Mr. Cotter said, “Esoteric is something I just haven’t explored yet; weird is what makes me want to get up in the morning.”

A Times Topics page on Holland Cotter can be found here. Among some of his recent pieces we highly recommend are “Buddha’s Caves,” from July 6, which chronicles his visit to Mogaoku, the Chinese Buddhist caves on the edge of the Gobi desert; and “Artist’s Life: Cut, Nip and Tuck,” from Monday’s Times, in which he reviews “I Am Art: An Expression of the Visual & Artistic Process of Plastic Surgery” at Apexart in TriBeCa.

We also highly endorse “Young Artists, Caught in the Act” from April 10, a review of “The Generational: Younger Than Jesus,” the New Museum’s inaugural triennial featuring only artists who, as the title suggests, are younger than 33. It closes with these incomparable paragraphs:

“Younger Than Jesus” doesn’t have a comparable sense of unity, texture or lift. It is, despite its promise of freshness, business as usual. Its strengths are individual and episodic, with too much work, particularly photography, making too little impact. But my point is that beyond quibbles about choices of individual works, it raises the question of whether any mainstream museum show designed to be a running update exclusively on the work of young artists can rise above being a preapproved market survey. Removed from a larger generational context, can such a survey ever become a story, part of a larger history? (The same question applies to museum exhibitions that leave young artists out of the picture.) I’m asking. It’s a complicated subject. I don’t know the answer.

In any case, a generational challenge has already been taken up elsewhere. A small commercial gallery called BLT, on the Bowery across from the New Museum, has announced that its May exhibition will consist exclusively of artists born before 1927. Louise Bourgeois, Lucian Freud and Ellsworth Kelly will be among the participants. The show will be called “Wiser Than God.”

4/21/2009

Running Rings Around the E.U.

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/22/opinion/22iht-edfox.html

THE NEW YORK TIMES

Op-Ed Contributor

By JOHN FOX and FRANÇOIS GODEMENT

Published: April 21, 2009

LONDON — China’s performance at the recent G-20 summit meeting once again showed its skill at running diplomatic rings around Europe. Its audacious eve-of-summit call for a new global reserve currency to replace the dollar, the plaudits it won for a modest contribution to the International Monetary Fund, and President Hu Jintao’s occupancy of the center-stage in the leaders’ photo-call — added up to a great public relations triumph.

But while China edges toward the top-table, Europe’s leaders remain disunited and unsure of how to deal with the rising giant.

As European capitals prepare for the E.U.-China summit next month — rescheduled from last autumn after China canceled the meeting in retaliation for President Nicolas Sarkozy’s visit with the Dalai Lama — they must realize that the current E.U. strategy of “engagement” at any price leaves Beijing in control.

The E.U.’s heroic ambition for the last 20 years has been to act as a catalyst for change in China — as if it is still a developing country that can be molded. As a result, China now treats the E.U. with diplomatic contempt. It sees the relationship as a game of chess, with 27 opponents crowding the other side of the board and squabbling about which piece to move. As the Chinese academic Pan Wei puts it, the “E.U. is weak, politically divided and militarily non-influential. Economically, it’s a giant, but we no longer fear it because we know that the E.U. needs China more than China needs the E.U.”

Time and again, France, Germany and Britain have lobbied to become China’s partner of choice in Europe — even though Beijing only grants preferred status temporarily to the most pliant bidder. Despite the punishments meted out to Mr. Sarkozy and Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany for meeting the Dalai Lama, Europe’s heavyweight leaders have capitalized on one another’s misfortune.

This jockeying for position is not working. Britain, despite its militant advocacy for open European markets for Chinese goods, has failed to persuade China to open up its financial-services sector. France, despite its commercial diplomacy, has seen its trade deficit with China explode. And even Germany, which has benefited the most from strong manufacturing exports, finds its trade deficit growing as Chinese exports move up the value chain.

European companies continue to face far more barriers than Chinese companies face in the E.U. And China has long proved unwilling to join Western efforts on pressing problems like the repressive regime in Burma. Beijing does occasionally modify its position in ways that suit the West — like its belated support for a U.N. peacekeeping force in Sudan and ending arms sales to Zimbabwe. But more often than not, these changes reflect direct Chinese interests rather than a desire to please the West.

The global economic crisis may yet persuade Beijing to cooperate for the sake of financial stability. But it might also offer cash-rich China an opportunity to improve its position while doing little to participate in international rescue plans.

The E.U. has no choice but to engage China as a global partner and to accept its historic rise. But it should drive hard bargains. Awarding China market economy status (which would put to rest China’s fear of a European trend toward protectionism) should be traded for genuine concessions by China on its own one-sided barriers to trade and investment. Access to European firms and technologies should also be reciprocated with a new opening by China.

Beijing must respond to European concern about issues like nuclear proliferation. Were China to contribute to successful sanctions on Iran, for example, the Europeans might lift their arms embargo.

Though the E.U.’s leverage on China’s human rights situation is limited, E.U. leaders must not deny one another support in order to curry favor with Beijing. They would be well advised to remind China that there is no restriction of their right to meet political and religious figures — including the Dalai Lama.

Any attempt to strengthen the European position must start with an acknowledgment that no member state is big enough to sway China on its own. But collectively, Europe is China’s biggest trade partner. Whenever China has shifted its position as a result of European pressure, as it has on the possibility of U.N. sanctions against nuclear proliferation, this followed a coordinated Western effort, strongly backed by the E.U. as a whole.

President Obama’s inauguration has signaled a new chapter in U.S.-China relations. To avoid being sidelined, the E.U. will have to offer more than a cacophonous chorus of competing voices.

John Fox is a former British diplomat who served in Beijing. François Godement is a senior French foreign policy analyst. Both men are senior fellows at the European Council on Foreign Relations.

Will Obama meet with China's nemesis, Dalai Lama?

http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5gPX1hfvgN0UVga9X1o5aTj-ALb2wD97MN1RG0

By FOSTER KLUG – 8 hours ago

WASHINGTON (AP) — A closely watched visit is set to take place in October, when a frail, 74-year-old Buddhist monk seeks an audience with President Barack Obama.

Obama must make a delicate calculation as he considers a meeting with the Dalai Lama, the exiled spiritual leader of Tibet's Buddhists, seen by his supporters as a symbol of peace but vilified by China as a "wolf in monk's robes" who seeks to split Tibet from the rest of China.

Whatever Obama decides about the visit will spark anger.

Meeting with the Dalai Lama, as every president since George H.W. Bush has done, would infuriate China, whose help the United States sees as crucial to global economic recovery efforts and dealing with nuclear standoffs in North Korea and Iran.

Activists would seize on a White House visit for the Nobel Peace laureate as a powerful message to Tibetans and others struggling for human rights around the world.

The Obama administration, in the months ahead, will weigh its desire to secure crucial Chinese cooperation on global crises with its worries that China is abusing the rights of Tibetans.

The Dalai Lama is celebrated in much of the world as a figure of moral authority. In response to China's claims that he seeks Tibetan independence, the Dalai Lama has said repeatedly that he wants only "real autonomy" for Tibet.

The Dalai Lama's supporters expect Obama will continue the long-standing U.S. presidential tradition of meeting with the monk.

Obama's administration, however, has faced criticism that a growing emphasis on U.S-Chinese economic and diplomatic cooperation has fueled reluctance to confront the Chinese on sensitive human rights and trade issues.

Last Wednesday, Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner would not cite China as a country that manipulates its currency to gain unfair trade advantages, despite American claims that the undervalued Chinese currency is the biggest cause for the huge trade deficit the United States runs with China.

In February, the Obama administration delighted China when Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton said during her trip to Beijing that the United States would not let its human rights concerns interfere with cooperation with Beijing.

Dennis Wilder, who served as President George W. Bush's senior Asia adviser, said some of Obama's economic advisers, eager to get more Chinese cooperation on the financial meltdown, might be tempted to "lower the profile" of a Dalai Lama meeting.

Both Bush's father and President Bill Clinton met unofficially with the Dalai Lama, each "dropping in" as the monk visited with a senior adviser.

The second President Bush met with the Dalai Lama in the private residences of the White House, avoiding the more public Oval Office. But he broke with tradition when, in an elaborate public ceremony, he presented the Dalai Lama with the U.S. Congress' highest civilian honor in 2007, calling the monk a "universal symbol of peace and tolerance."

China was outraged and said the United States had "gravely undermined" relations.

Indeed, China's reaction is unambiguous when foreign leaders meet with the Dalai Lama. China canceled a major summit with the European Union when French President Nicolas Sarkozy met last year with the Dalai Lama.

China's Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi said last month that shunning the Dalai Lama should be considered one of the "basic principles of international relations."

As October approaches, U.S. officials will take a close look at the state of relations with China. Based on those ties, the administration will then decide whether Obama can risk continuing the tradition of meeting with the Dalai Lama and, if so, what sort of meeting to grant the monk.

China will oppose any contact between Obama and the Dalai Lama. But Douglas Paal, a former senior Asia adviser for Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush, said, "How badly they react to a meeting depends on what the overall state relations are in."

Copyright © 2009 The Associated Press. All rights reserved.

欧盟发现中国不安全商品数量创新纪录

欧盟08年发现不安全商品数量创新纪录

http://cn.reuters.com/article/CNIntlBizNews/idCNChina-4280420090421

2009年 4月 21日 星期二 08:51 BJT

路透布鲁塞尔4月20日电---欧盟委员会周一发布的一份报告称,欧盟2008年发现的不安全商品数量创新高,其中超过一半不合格的玩具和电子产品等商品均来自中国。

2008年,根据“欧盟非食品类消费品快速预警系统”(RAPEX),去年欧盟27国发现的会对消费者构成严重健康和安全危险的商品数量上升了16%。

委员会在年度报告中称:“关于不合格产品的通报从2007的1,605件上升到2008年的1,866件。”

欧盟消费者事务专员梅格丽娜・库列娃(Meglena Kuneva)在记者招待会上表示,决不能在经济衰退时期忽视产品安全问题。

她说:“无论如何,我们都不能让目前的经济和金融危机降低了我们的警惕度。”

“相反,在经济危机期间,当产品价格成为消费者支出中的重要影响因素时,我们需要加大努力,保持高度警觉。”

包括香港产品在内的中国产品占被通报商品的59%,2007年这一数值为52%,2006年为49%。

库列娃表示,中国仅调查了被通报产品的一半,但这已经比两年前有了极大改善。

她说:“尽管依然不尽如人意,但比之前要好得多。”(完)

编译:靳怡雯 发稿:金红梅

EU sees China unsafe products hitting record high

http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5iIkUsaQNoxfrKeaoPz4tGbnx9bMg

20 hours ago

BRUSSELS (AFP) — The European Commission is not satisfied with China's record on dealing with consumer product safety, a commissioner said Monday, unveiling record high levels of dangerous goods.

The comment came as the EU's executive arm released new figures on dangerous goods, showing that a record number were found throughout the European Union last year, with more than half coming from China, in particular hazardous toys.

The commission's rapid alert system for non-food goods, RAPEX, said a total of 1,866 unsafe products were brought to its attention in 2008, a 16 percent increase on the previous year.

Products from China accounted for 59 percent of the goods reported, substantially up from 52 percent in 2007 and 49 percent in 2006.

In only half of the Chinese cases which came to light, preventive or restrictive measures were carried out to deal with the problem.

One of the biggest problems was identifying the responsible Chinese companies involved.

"This is not good enough as we stated in 2007," said EU Consumer Affairs Commissioner Maglena Kuneva, though admitting that the level of action was much better than in previous years.

"It is an improvement (but) no I am not satisfied, and I am working with Chinese authorities " to remedy the problems, she told reporters in Brussels.

"We shouldn't take this as a signal to close our markets. We need good, non-dangerous products from China, but not at the expense of safety," she stressed.

Toys made up almost a third of the dangerous products recalled worldwide.

The flood of Chinese-made toys has been a growing concern in recent years, with US giant Mattel recalling more than 21 million such items in 2007 alone.

The next largest sectors for recalls were electrical appliances, which made up 11 percent of the total cases, motor vehicles (10 percent) and clothing (nine percent).

After China, the European Union as a bloc was the next largest culprit being responsible for one in five reported hazardous consumer products.

Industrial powerhouse Germany alone accounted for five percent of the world total of products deemed to present a risk of physical or chemical injury, choking, electric shock, fire and other hazards.

Last November the European Union and China signed a deal to improve consumer safety amid the continuing health fears over Chinese products imported into Europe.

Under the agreement China is obliged to inform the European Union about what it is doing to track down dangerous goods. It also allows for officials from the two sides to carry out coordinated checks on producers to ensure safety standards are being met.

Copyright © 2009 AFP. All rights reserved. More »


欧盟委员会通报危险消费品数量正逐年增加

http://finance.ifeng.com/roll/20090421/563512.shtml

2009年04月21日

经济参考报

本报讯欧盟委员会20日发布的欧盟非食用消费品快速通报系统(RAPEX)年度报告显示,2008年欧盟市场下架的危险消费品数量较2007年增加16%,通报数由2007年的1605例增加到去年的1866例。2008年,玩具和儿童护理产品(如:脚踏车、学步车、婴儿床和奶嘴)、电器产品和玩具车是通报次数最多的产品。

欧盟负责消费者保护事务的委员梅格莱娜·库内娃说:“RAPEX报告显示,随着商业机构和国家相关部门更严格地履行责任,监管能力年复一年提高,欧盟消费者正处于比以往任何时候都要好的保护之下,远离危险产品的侵害。RAPEX的数据也证明我们决定与中国和美国强化合作是正确的。2009年最大的挑战是确保产品安全(问题)不因金融危机而搁置,各公司能够继续履行对消费者的职责,以及各成员国划分出足够的资源来执行这一机制。”

欧盟委员会表示,自2004年以来,通过RAPEX通报的产品总量逐年增加;被通报数量在近五年中翻了两番,即从2004年的468例上升到2008年的1866例;2008年通报总量比2007年增长了16%。这是因为各国政府更为有效地控制产品安全,各企业加强了责任意识,不断增强与第三国合作,以及在欧盟委员会协调下连接各成员国的网络发挥了积极作用。

据悉,欧盟所有成员国均加入了RAPEX,在这一体系下检测及通报危险产品,并确保收到信息后采取适当应对措施。其中,有12个成员国在实施中进一步强化了检测措施。按照通报次数排名,居前几位的国家分别是德国(205次)、西班牙(163次)、斯洛伐克(140次)、希腊(132次)和匈牙利(129次)。

2008年,仅玩具(498次)、电器(169次)和机动车辆(160次)就占了所有通报的存在严重风险产品的53%,该结果与2007年持平。不过,2008年纺织品(包括成衣)通报140次,在最频繁通报产品中排名第四。

年度报告还显示,通过RAPEX通报的对消费者健康和安全会造成严重危害的产品中,中国产品数量从2007年的52%增加到2008年的59%。中国相关机构已根据于2006年9月建立的RAPEX-CHINA系统所提供的RAPEX信息对中国市场采取了应对措施。

记者了解到,欧盟委员会定期向中国国家质量监督检验检疫总局提供撤出欧盟市场及通过RAPEX通报的中国危险品的RAPEX资料,以便质检总局采取措施,从而有效防范危险品及类似产品再次流入欧盟。

自RAPEX-CHINA系统建立以来,中国国家质检总局已对669项RAPEX通报展开调查,并对其中352个案件(占总数的53%)采取了积极的预防性或限制性措施。

晚清碎影——英国摄影家看19世纪中国



BBC NEWS

In pictures: 19th Century China

2009-4-19

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_pictures/8007041.stm

BBC中文网汉译:http://news.bbc.co.uk/chinese/simp/hi/newsid_8000000/newsid_8007500/8007513.stm

约翰·汤姆森(John Thomson),1837-1921,苏格兰摄影师。他是第二次鸦片战争以后以旅游者身份来华摄影人中最著名的一个。1862年他开始了亚洲摄影活动的多产十年,其声誉主要来自1870年至1872年在中国大陆拍摄的系列作品,其足迹遍布中国沿海、港口、城市,包括香港、澳门、台湾等地,拍摄了大量反映中国社会各阶层的照片,并在1873年出版了刊有200多幅照片的著名专集《中国及其国民的影像》。

http://www.china.com.cn/aboutchina/zhuanti/lbjjy/2008-11/07/content_16727247.htm



“晚清碎影”英国摄影家看中国

http://www.bbc.co.uk/china/lifeintheuk/story/2009/04/090408_thomson.shtml

2009年4月08日

BBC 中国网 玉川


苏格兰摄影师约翰·汤姆逊与两名清兵

最近一个春雨濛濛的早晨,我在伦敦采访了一位久居英国的华裔文化界人士姚詠蓓女士。她正要飞往北京,带去一个首次在中国举办的摄影展 – “晚清碎影 – 约翰•汤姆逊眼中的中国”。
视角独特的摄影展

“晚清碎影”,这个展览的题目就使我产生极大的好奇心。这个摄影展将展出苏格兰著名摄影家约翰•汤姆逊(John Thomson, 1837–1921)19世纪前往中国拍摄的150幅珍贵的历史照片,这些照片生动而真实地再现了摄影家眼中的中国晚清社会的历史瞬间。

摄影术在1839年才正式发明,伴随鸦片战争的炮火,摄影也被西方人带入中国。虽然约翰•汤姆逊不是最早到中国摄影的西方人,但是他却是第一个对中国早期摄影术进行了珍贵纪录的摄影家,是第一个在拍摄中国人时孜孜追求摄影审美的艺术家和沟通大师,也是第一个在旅行和摄影过程中对中国人民表示友好和同情的西方摄影家。

“晚清碎影”展览的策展人姚詠蓓女士为了把这个极具历史意义的展览带到中国,花费了好几年时间。在访谈中,我先请姚女士介绍一下约翰•汤姆逊其人。


姚詠蓓女士是这次展览的策展人

(姚詠蓓访谈摘录)

姚詠蓓:约翰·汤姆逊1837年生于爱丁堡,是个专业摄影家,也喜欢旅行。19世纪前往中国的西方人大多是为生意,有公办,或者是传教士,但汤姆逊却不一样,他纯粹是对这个遥远而古老的国家感兴趣而前往中国。

1868年,他以香港为基地,带着沉重的摄影设备四次前往中国。那时候的摄影跟今天的数码摄影可是有天壤之别。当时连胶卷都没有,每一张照片都保存在涂上药水的玻璃底片上。拍摄时间也比较长,同时要现场把影像洗印在玻璃底片上。可想而知,他要带多少摄影和洗印设备。

他最重要的中国之旅始于1870年,为时两年。在这两年中,他从广东进入福建,然后游历华东和华北,到达北京,此后又南下长江流域,行程长达5,000多英里。沿途拍摄了大量风景、人物、建筑、家居生活和街景等极具历史价值的照片。最重要的是,他拍摄的对象和视角非常广泛,不仅是那些皇亲贵族和宫殿楼阁,而且有很多市井生活写照。他的图片描绘了一幅真实、丰富而多彩的晚清中国社会画面。另外非常令人感兴趣的是,汤姆逊拍摄了很多中国妇女肖像,细腻地反映了19世纪中国妇女的形象。


在汤姆逊的作品中可以看到不少晚清妇女肖像

玉川:反映中国清朝时期的西方摄影作品也不少,汤姆逊的摄影作品有什么独特之处呢?

姚詠蓓:的确,我看过不少西方摄影家19世纪的中国摄影作品。我感到,鸦片战争之后,大多数有关中国的西方摄影作品都是比较负面的。展示的大多是比较落后和丑陋的画面,令人感受不到什么人情味和美感。而汤姆逊的摄影作品就不一样。

我们可以通过这个展览上的摄影作品看到,他给人们留下的中国晚清社会画卷,有力地捕捉了当时中国那种鲜为人知的美和活力。他的作品中既有壮丽的风景和建筑,又有普通百姓的日常生活照。

我相信,汤姆逊一定是一个优秀的沟通大师。19世纪时绝大多数中国人并没有见过外国人,也没有见识过摄影机。很多人甚至认为,摄影机会把人的“灵魂”带走,令人恐惧。但是在汤姆逊镜头里的男女老幼,看上去都那么安详自然。可以想象,他一定很善良,态度也很友好,才能说服他的拍摄对象自愿地让他拍摄。

玉川:我知道这个展览是您执着追求和努力的结果,那您最初是怎么接触到汤姆逊的晚清中国摄影作品的呢?对这个展览的激情从何而来呢?

姚詠蓓:说起来一晃几年了。五年前,我在英国维尔康姆图书馆(Wellcome Library)第一次看到了汤姆逊的一些中国晚清摄影作品,感到非常新鲜,并久久不能忘怀。之后我进一步寻找有关这位苏格兰摄影家的生平和经历的资料。得知1921年在汤姆逊去世后,他的后人把汤姆逊所有的摄影玻璃底片都卖给了维尔康姆图书馆。将近90年来,这些珍贵的玻璃底片一直保存在维尔康姆图书馆。

后来一个偶然的机会,我碰上了维尔康姆图书馆的一位负责人。他告诉我,汤姆逊的这些有关中国的摄影作品从来没有在中国展出过,他们希望有一天能把其中一些优秀的摄影作品带到中国展出。就这一句话,几年来我就一直琢磨如何把这些难得的历史照片带到中国展出。后来,我暂时离开了我在文化交流机构“亚洲之家”(Asia House)的工作,投入所有的精力,策划和组织这个展览。我特别得到北京中华世纪坛艺术博物馆王丽梅馆长的大力支持,终于使这个展览得以在北京展出。


在汤姆逊摄影作品中反映了晚清普通百姓的生活画面

4月16号在北京中华世纪坛艺术博物馆展出一个月之后,还要到福建博物馆、广州博物馆和东莞展览中心展出。最后,在年底将回到英国利物浦博物馆筹办展出,庆祝2010年中国农历新年。

玉川:那么在这个展览上,你感到哪些作品最有意思呢?

姚詠蓓:我想,最有意思的是汤姆逊的人物写照,和晚清日常生活照。我个人还特别喜欢妇女照片。你可以看到,当时北方妇女的服装头饰跟福建、广东地区的妇女服饰几乎完全不一样。虽然这些事在历史书中也有记载,但是通过当时的真实照片反映出来,实在是非常精彩,栩栩如生。

另外,他的摄影作品中显示了很多壮观的古老建筑,我希望能给当今的设计和城建人员一些启发,能使他们认识到,这些古建筑的魅力和珍贵。如果能达到这样的目的,我会感到非常欣慰,也不枉我这几年的心血。

4/20/2009

越南人对中国“入侵”产生新恐惧

In Vietnam, New Fears of a Chinese 'Invasion'

From TIME

By Martha Ann Overland / Hanoi

Thursday, Apr. 16, 2009

Thirty years ago, Vietnamese soldiers waged a final, furious battle in the hills of Lang Son near the country's northern border to push back enemy troops. Both sides suffered horrific losses, but Vietnam eventually proclaimed victory. Decades later, diplomatic relations have been restored and the two nations, at least in public, call each other friend. Vietnam's former foe is a major investor in the country, bilateral trade is at an all-time high, and tourists, not troops, are pouring in.

No, not Americans. Chinese. As part of an aggressive effort to expand its commercial and political influence in Southeast Asia, China is investing heavily in Vietnam. Chinese companies are now involved in myriad road projects, mining operations and power plants. Yet, despite the fact that cooperation between the two communist countries is being encouraged by Vietnam's leaders, this friendly invasion does not sit well among a people who have been fighting off Chinese advances for more than a thousand years, most recently in 1979. Many in Vietnam worry that China is being handed the keys not just to their country's natural resources but also to sensitive strategic areas, threatening the nation's security. "The danger is that China has won most of the bids building electricity, cement and chemical plants," warns Nguyen Van Thu, the chairman of Vietnam's Association of Mechanical Industries. "They eat up everything and leave nothing." (See pictures of the border war between China and Vietnam.)

Thu says he suspects some Chinese companies have won construction contracts by submitting lowball bids, which could mean they are cutting corners, threatening quality and safety. But Thu's biggest concern is the influx of large numbers of Chinese workers, including cooks and cleaning staff, that are taking jobs from Vietnamese and threatening the country's social stability. "Chinese contractors bring everything here, even the toilet seats!" declares Thu. "These are materials Vietnam can produce, and work that Vietnamese can do."

The latest lightning rod for anti-Chinese sentiment is Hanoi's plan to allow subsidiaries of the Aluminum Corporation of China (Chinalco) to mine bauxite ore in Vietnam's Central Highlands. Bauxite is a key ingredient in aluminum, which China needs to fuel its construction industry. Vietnam has an estimated eight billion tons of high-quality bauxite, the third-largest reserves in the world. The environmental cost of extracting the mineral, however, can be high. Strip mining is efficient, but scars the land and bauxite processing releases a toxic red sludge that can seep into water supplies if not adequately contained. Several senior Vietnamese scientists as well as Vietnam's burgeoning green movement have questioned the wisdom of giving mining rights to China, whose own mines were shut down because of the massive damage they caused to the environment.

But the real opposition appears to have less to do with the environment and more to do with Vietnam's fear of its neighbor on the country's northern border. Nationalist groups accuse Hanoi of caving in to pressure from commodities-hungry China by allowing the mining project to go forward. Bloggers are whipping up fears that the influx of Chinese workers is part of Beijing's long-term strategy to occupy their country. Banned pro-democracy groups, which are happy for any opportunity to criticize the authoritarian government, call the mining venture an "ill-begotten scheme." Earlier this month, a dissident Buddhist monk, Thich Quang Do, said that strip mining will destroy the way of life of the region's ethnic minorities. He added that the project created "an illustration of Vietnam's dependence on China." There has been no such outcry against U.S. aluminum giant Alcoa's plans to mine two sites in Dak Nong province in the Central Highlands.

Perhaps the most unexpected criticism has come from General Vo Nguyen Giap, a revered Vietnamese military leader who helped defeat the French and later the Americans. In a letter to Vietnam's Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung, the 97-year-old war hero voiced concern over the presence of large numbers of Chinese in the Central Highlands, which is a strategic gateway to Vietnam, one where battles have been won and lost.

Other countries in the region are made uneasy by China's thirst for resources. Last month, the Australian government rejected a $1.8 billion bid by Chinese mining company Minmetals to acquire debt-ridden OZ Minerals, the world's second-biggest zinc miner, due to national security concerns. OZ Minerals has operations near Australia's Woomera weapons testing site.

The Hanoi government says it is listening to concerns but it appears to be unmoved. Dung recently declared bauxite mining a "major policy of the party and the state." Deputy Prime Minister Hoang Trung Hai reaffirmed the government's support, and several local provincial officials were on hand at a recent mining conference to defend the project, arguing that despite the presence of the Chinese workers, development will benefit the impoverished ethnic minorities who live in the region.

The pressure on Vietnam to proceed as planned is enormous, says Carl A. Thayer, a Vietnam expert who teaches at the University of New South Wales' Australian Defense Force Academy. Vietnam needs to trade with China, the world's third-largest economy, to survive. Thayer acknowledges that no Chinese company operates independently of the government. "If you go up far enough you will find a military or a security connection," he says. "But Chinese occupation? I don't believe that."

Some of the problems are of Vietnam's own making, observes Thayer. The country has become increasingly dependent on foreign direct investment to buoy its economy. Last year, overseas investors sunk a record $11.5 billion into Vietnam. China last year had 73 investment projects worth $334 million in the country. But in the wake of the global recession, foreign direct investment plummeted 70% in the first quarter of 2009 compared to the same time period last year.

Hanoi has been calling for increased investment, and is even more desperate for external cash infusions now that its economy has flatlined. Vietnam has also racked up a massive trade deficit with China. As more Chinese companies venture across the border and sink millions into new investment projects, Hanoi can't dictate all the terms. Nor can they just close the spigot. "The Vietnamese have to be careful of what they wish for," says Thayer.

Related Photos

China-Vietnam Border War, 30 Years Later


4月18日《参考消息》摘译(题:越南人对中国投资项目存疑虑):

【美国《时代》周刊网站4月16日文章】题:越南人对“中国入侵”产生新恐惧(作者 玛莎·奥弗兰)

中国在东南亚雄心勃勃地努力扩张商业和政治影响力。作为扩张计划的一部分,中国在越南投下了大量资金。中国公司参与了数不清的公路修建、矿产开发以及发电项目。尽管两个共产党国家间的合作受到越南领导人的鼓励,但是这种友好的渗透却让一千多年来和中国扩张做斗争的越南人坐立不安。

很多越南人现在担心中国不仅掌握了越南的天然资源,而且掌握了敏感的战略地区,进而对越南的国家安全构成威胁。越南机械上业协会主席阮文秋(音)说:“威胁在于中国赢得了大多数电站、化工厂和水泥厂的招标合同。他们吃光了所有东西,什么也留不下。”

阮文秋说,他怀疑一些中周公司通过虚报低价赢得建筑合同,这意味着中国公司要弄虚作假,危及建筑的质量和安全。但是他最大的担心是蜂拥而来的中国工人夺取了越南人的工作机会,而且威胁到越南的社会稳定。

河内最近计划允许中国铝业公司开采越南中部的铝矿,这引发了新一轮反华情绪。几位知名科学家以及环保组织对结予中国采矿权提出了质疑,认为中国因环境遭到严重污染而关闭大量境内的铝矿。

不过真正的反对派显然是对庞大的北方邻国更有戒心,而不是对环境。民族主义组织指责河内政府屈从中国的压力,让采矿计划得以进行。在很多越南人的博客上都能看到类似中国工人的拥入是中国占领越南的长期战略的一部分的忧心言论。

但是当美国铝业巨头美铝公司计划开采越南中部的两处铝矿时,却没有听到这样的反对声音。也许最出乎意料的批评是来自武元甲将军。这位98岁的老将军在给越南总理阮晋勇的信中对越南中部山区存在大量的中国人表示担心,因为中部山区是越南的战略门户。

河内政府称注意到人们的担心,但是显然不为所动。阮晋勇最近宣布,铝矿开采是“党和国家的主要政策”。几位地方官员在最近的一次矿产工作会议上表示,尽管中国工人大量拥入,但是开发对于改善当地贫穷的少数民族生活有很大帮助。

学者卡尔·塞耶指出,越南受到的变革压力是巨大的。越南需要与中国的贸易才能生存。他说:“如果你深入调查,你会发现中国公司多少都有些背景,但是中国占领越南?我不相信这点。”

塞耶说,还有一些问题是越南自身的。现在越南越来越依靠外国直接投资来支撑国家的经济。随着越来越多的中国公司进入越南,把上亿的资金投入新项目,河内无法在所有的问题上说了算。塞耶说:“越南人必须对他们希望得到的东西加倍小心。”

相关报道:

BBC中文网:被指煽动中越仇恨 越一报纸遭停刊

4/18/2009

在梦中舞蹈的奥运牺牲品刘岩



Liu Yan, who was paralyzed last summer at a rehearsal for the Olympics opening ceremony, at the National Theater in Beijing, where she used to perform regularly as China’s top dancer.(Shiho Fukada for The New York Times)

2008年7月27日,据北京奥运开幕只有十天,开幕式彩排时,《丝路》的独舞演员刘岩意外从高空摔下,导致高位截瘫,只能靠轮椅行动,再也无法蹁跹起舞。才26岁的刘岩成了北京奥运的牺牲品。

奥运会开闭幕式运营中心在一份“情况说明”的材料中称,事故的原因是“由于车台操作失误,提前撤出,造成独舞演员刘岩从近三米高空踩空、坠落。”

为了呈现完美的奥运以满足民族虚荣心,如此严重的事故,当时却是国家机密,直到现在仍鲜为人知。

4月19日出版的《纽约时报》在题为“她在梦中舞蹈”(Still Dancing in Her Dreams)的报道中说:

不可思议的是,刘岩的故事在中国却鲜为人知。今年8月,由于害怕她摔伤的消息影响奥运盛会,北京奥组委要求目击者和家属不要声张。

即使今天,中国政府控制的新闻媒体也不被允许报道关于刘岩的全部真相,尽管这位著名的舞蹈演员经常被挑选为中国的最高领导人,包括国家主席胡锦涛,表演。

几周前,新闻管制稍微放松了一下,受人赞誉的中国电影导演和北京奥运开幕式导演张艺谋,在一次晚会上给刘岩颁奖,称赞她是巾帼英雄。

福禄祯祥翻译部分原文:

Strangely, Ms. Liu’s story is barely known inside China because in August, fearing that news of her devastating fall would detract from Olympic celebrations, Beijing’s Olympic Committee asked witnesses and family members not to talk about the accident.

Even today, China’s state-controlled news media have not been given permission to tell the full story of what happened to a dancer so celebrated she was often selected to perform for China’s top leaders, including President Hu Jintao.

But a few weeks ago, in a small break from that news blackout, Zhang Yimou, the acclaimed Chinese filmmaker and director of the opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympics, honored Ms. Liu (pronounced LEE-oh) at an awards dinner here, and proclaimed her a heroine.


刘岩博客:http://blog.sina.com.cn/liuyan314

福禄祯祥奥运专题★关注奥运对中国的影响

NYTimes: Letter: Tibet and China

LETTERS

Letter: Tibet and China

Published: April 19, 2009

To the Editor: I read Edward Wong's Explorer article "On Foot in the Mountains of Mystical Yunnan" (April 5), and while I was intrigued by his descriptions of the places he visited, I was disturbed by his constant references to the location as "the Tibetan region of China." A more accurate description would be "Chinese-occupied Tibet." We would not, I believe expect to see an article describing a trip to Baghdad referring to the "Iraq region of the United States," would we?

Peter O'Malley
Oakland, N.J.

《纽约时报》评《德黑兰蜜月》:在伊朗的日子里,自由被延期

Books of The New York Times

Life in Iran, Where Freedom Is Deferred

By MICHIKO KAKUTANI
Published: April 13, 2009

HONEYMOON IN TEHRAN
Two Years of Love and Danger in Iran
By Azadeh Moaveni
340 pages. Random House. $26.

《参考消息》摘译。题:在伊朗的日子里

穆阿韦妮的新书《德黑兰蜜月》讲述了2005年马哈茂德艾哈迈迪-内贾德当选总统一事将对该国造成的影响,向读者描绘了一个远不如《口红圣战》所述的那样乐观的伊朗

【美国《纽约时报》4月14日文章】题:评《德黑兰蜜月》:在伊朗的日子里,自由被延期

作者:角谷美智子

在2005年出版的畅销书《口红圣战》中,身为记者的阿扎德穆阿韦妮记述了世纪之交德黑兰年轻人的地下文化。书中描绘了一群采取“脱离现实的生活方式”的青少年———他们表现得就好像伊朗不在态度强硬的毛拉的统治之下,就好像他们可以在大街上手牵手、在聚会上大声播放摇滚乐、阅读禁书、畅所欲言、挑战权威、涂着过于浓艳的口红。穆阿韦妮说,伊朗的民间变化——从非法卫星天线和非法音像制品小贩到博客的流行——将最终改变这个国家的历史轨迹,而年轻人口日渐增多的趋势将自下而上改变这个国家。

女作家

穆阿韦妮的新书《德黑兰蜜月》讲述了2005年马哈茂德艾哈迈迪-内贾德当选总统一事将对该国造成的影响,向读者描绘了一个远不如前书所述的那样乐观的伊朗。该书讲述了作者本人努力在德黑兰安家的奋斗历程——她在德黑兰坠入爱河、嫁给了一个伊朗人,还生了一个男孩。作者还在书中写道,她意识到不可能在德黑兰继续当记者、也不可能在那儿安家。作者在书中借自己的切身经历折射出德黑兰的政治态势,她一家的生活在读者脑海中留下了深刻印象,该书还从极个人的视角剖析了伊朗的社会政治进展。

穆阿韦妮的父母是伊朗流亡者,她在加利福尼亚长大,成年后成为《时代》周刊驻伊朗记者。她在2002年离开德黑兰,当时布什刚刚在国情咨文中把伊朗划入“邪恶轴心”。2005年,穆阿韦妮回到德黑兰报道总统选举。一开始,她为在德黑兰城里看到的变化感到欢欣鼓舞,并认为“伊朗人已经默默接纳了政府,因而政府或许会重新考虑一些禁忌”。

女作家撰写的满是浪漫和性爱场景的小说雄踞畅销书榜单;学生开始组建地下摇滚乐队;“已经习惯于在毛拉控制下过单调乏味、缺少娱乐的生活”的伊朗人现在有各式各样的家居用品、美式食品和名牌产品可选择。(穆阿韦妮写道,一个D&G广告牌怪异地竖立在离高喊着“美国去死”等口号的示威人群不远的地方。)

新总统

鲜为人知的内贾德当选总统让伊朗和全世界的许多人都大吃一惊。他是强硬派,竞选过程中没有宣扬苛刻的伊斯兰教价值观,而是承诺向国民提供经济机会。穆阿韦妮说,内贾德当选不仅是因为选举过程中或许出现了舞弊,还因为温和派没能团结在一个令人信服的候选人周围,同时也是那些对搁置多年的改革感到心灰意冷的选民放弃投票所致。

伊朗大选将对伊朗和全世界产生重大影响。内贾德总统与美国进行对抗,并利用西方对伊朗核计划的反对来设法缔造民族团结;此外,他的政府还大力挤压给予记者和妇女的有限自由。

穆阿韦妮曾报道过,2007年的一个春日,“当局发起了十多年来最凶残的对‘非伊斯兰’裙装的镇压。一夜之间,他们修改了有关妇女裙装的不成文规定。全伊朗数百万妇女的衣橱里全是合身的短外套、长及脚踝的长裤以及颜色鲜亮的头巾。突然间,这些东西竟会招来牢狱之灾。在随后的一段时间里,警方以违反官方着装规定为由拘捕了15万名妇女。”

私生活

在新书中,穆阿韦妮用动人的笔触讲述了伊斯兰教政府的法令是如何渗透到人民私生活的方方面面的。想要办一场“男宾、女宾共同参加的婚礼”的夫妇得到忠告:要花大价钱雇用安全人员来防止警察突袭。给小孩取名的时候也要谨慎,要避免使用一些禁用的名字,包括欧洲人名、库尔德人名以及前伊斯兰时期的波斯英雄名。

必须提防邻居,他们很可能会举报“生活方式标新立异”的人———有时候“出于真正的义愤填膺,有时则是为了报复和自己吵过架的邻居”。为人父母者则需要担心向孩子灌输开明的价值观会为他们今后的人生道路带来麻烦:“如果公开宣扬自己的真正信仰,他们可能有朝一日会被老师惩罚、被学校开除、被警察逮捕或者被老板解雇。”

在穆阿韦妮被政府告知“不太合适再工作”而且“犯有进行反政权宣传罪”、司法部门也对她展开调查之后,她和丈夫决定带着年幼的儿子移居英格兰。穆阿韦妮的丈夫本来在他父亲的纺织厂上班,而且和穆阿韦妮一样,他家里也有人流亡到西方。这是个艰难的决定,因为它意味着舍弃在德黑兰的大家庭,而且对穆阿韦妮来讲,还意味着承认“伊朗容不下他们”、伊朗国内所有关于“弥补、改变和改善的谈论都是文字游戏”、“伊朗从核心来讲太沉闷太腐化”。

年轻人

伊朗的改革运动为什么会搁置呢?为什么没有更多针对政府的高压政策的抗议活动以及呼吁政治变革的大规模运动呢?正如穆阿韦妮观察到的那样,伊朗年轻人“对找工作和提高生活水平的关心远远超出他们对伊朗是否会在他们的有生之年与西方式民主和谐相处的关心”。

她尖锐地总结道,年轻人“不加迟疑地高声喝止一名警官或是在公开的伊斯兰仪式上调情通常意味着,他们只关心10英尺半径范围内的自由”。在这个范围外,反叛所伴随的风险远比回报大得多。许多年轻人都忙于把钱花在移民上,诸如英语水平考试、签证申请和语言课程,他们认为自己在国外更有前途,而不愿为了在某种程度上改变伊朗而放弃那些希望。他们认为,改变伊朗是痴心妄想,而且代价高昂,最好留给后人去做。

Related:

First Chapter: ‘Honeymoon in Tehran’ (April 13, 2009)
Lives: Wine-Order Bride (January 25, 2009)
Essay: Seeking Signs of Literary Life in Iran (May 27, 2007)
Books of The Times 'Lipstick Jihad': As if the Mullahs Were All Young at Heart (February 25, 2005)

(Azadeh Moaveni,又译阿扎徳•莫芬妮,阿扎德•毛芬妮——福禄祯祥注)

6/29/2009 1:18:40 PM

4/17/2009

智库报告:欧盟对华政策失败

BBC中文网

2009年04月17日 格林尼治标准时间10:32北京时间 18:32发表

http://news.bbc.co.uk/chinese/simp/hi/newsid_8000000/newsid_8004000/8004014.stm

欧盟采取与中国接触政策被指为过时

欧洲外交关系委员会指出,欧盟对中国的政策,从贸易到人权都没法得到任何进展。这个欧盟智囊机构认为,欧盟应该对中国更强硬但是也要给与更大的鼓励。

委员会说,北京积极地玩弄欧盟内部的分歧。欧盟却乐于给与中国以发展中国家的地位,而不是以经济及外交强国来对待。

欧洲外交关系委员会发表的报告说,对中国无条件接触的策略已经不再可行。由于中国的强势,老一套方法已经无用。中国已经懂得巧妙地把玩欧洲的弱点,又拒绝步入民主进程。

欧盟是中国最大的出口市场,但是对中国有着庞大而且不断增长的贸易逆差。除了贸易摩擦之外,双方在西藏、台湾以至中国与苏丹和缅甸的关系都存在争论。

去年,法国总统萨尔科齐与西藏流亡精神领袖达赖喇嘛会面,中国因而退出与欧盟领袖举行的峰会。

"信念过时"

委员会的报告说,欧盟的中国策略是基于过时的信念,就是说中国受到欧洲接触的影响,会开放本身的经济、提升法治和民主。

报告说,但是,中国的外交和内政的发展完全没有顾及欧洲的价值观,而且现在北京还经常违反甚至损害这个价值观。

报告又说,北京已经圆熟地利用欧洲的分歧,例如西藏问题,欧盟国家很多时候不支持其它成员国的西藏政策。

欧洲外交关系委员会说,北京把本身与欧盟的关系看成是一局棋,27个对手挤在棋盘一角,争吵着走哪一步棋。让人纳闷的是北京明白这点之后,那么谁能下一手好棋就显而易见了。

不过,委员会认为,在对应中国的时候,欧盟还是可以打出王牌,促使中国成为更积极的全球伙伴,特别在伊朗核计划和气候变化等问题上。

报告也建议,欧盟可以解除在1989年六四事件之后对中国实施的长期武器禁运,以换取中国对伊朗更强硬的态度。

报告又说,欧盟还可以向中国提供重要的高效能和可再生能源科技,以换取中国达成特定的减排目标。

缺乏中国新闻与偏见无关

Los Angeles Times OPINION

Lack of news about China has nothing to do with bias

Comprehensive foreign coverage doesn't fit into the financial structure of traditional mainstream media.


By Timothy Garton Ash

April 16, 2009

In China, there is a widespread belief that Western media give a distorted picture of what's happening there. There's some truth in this, but it's not for the reasons that Chinese Communist Party members or nationalist "netizens" imagine.

Most Westerners with a mild interest in China probably see a lot of stories about Tibet, the upcoming anniversary of the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests, corruption and popular discontent. They see less about the extent of popular support for the system, bright students still joining the Communist Party or experiments in economic and political reform, especially at the provincial and local levels.

However, this slant is not because of "anti-China" policy or prejudice. Hard as it may be for many Chinese to believe -- because their own media reflect the policy of their party-state -- Western governments have almost nothing to do with it. The cause lies in the West's commercial news business, which is going through one of those "gales of creative destruction" that Joseph Schumpeter saw to be characteristic of capitalism.

As they compete fiercely for readers and viewers, mainstream Western media tend to stick with stories that are familiar and interesting to them. They report about Tibet not because they are ideological China-bashers but because their consumers are fascinated by and care about Tibet.

Yes, their news stories on China's domestic politics tend to the sensational and the negative -- so do their stories about the domestic politics of their own countries. Those who edit and select these stories are just following the market-oriented rules of their trade: If it bleeds, it leads. Good news is no news. "Many Chinese city-dwellers moderately content with rising standard of living" is not a headline that would sell many papers.

The real problem with China coverage in the mainstream Western media is not its negativity; it's simply that there's too little of it, given the growing importance of China and the fact that Chinese culture and society is so different from ours. Western media should not be writing less about the Dalai Lama or the June 4, 1989, Tiananmen anniversary, but they should be writing more about the other stories that make up China's complex, unfolding drama.

Alas, the trend is in the opposite direction, toward less foreign news of all kinds. The reason for this too is mainly economic. As advertising revenues fall, costly foreign bureaus close. That's bad news for news and also for international relations.

In a fine essay in the New Republic, Princeton scholar Paul Starr argues that news is a public good. Like clean air and good roads, it benefits not just those who directly pay for it. I extend his argument to foreign policy. In today's interconnected world, countries must understand each other, which depends on knowing the social facts and individual human stories that are the meat and drink of foreign news reporting.

So, as Comrade Lenin taught us to ask, what is to be done? A prime example of the wrong answer was given by China's ambassador to the European Union, Song Zhe. In a speech recently excerpted in the China Daily, Song says European and Chinese correspondents should "make their news reporting and commentary conducive to consensus, trust and cooperation" and "respect the other's theory of development, policy choice and cultural values."

No. That may be the business of ambassadors. It is not the business of journalists -- and especially not of reporters. Their job is to report accurately, fairly and vividly what they see, hear, smell and read. To tell it as it is. And thus, to recall a Chinese maxim favored by Deng Xiaoping, to "seek truth from facts."

All that remains is to do it. But actually, if you are interested and know where to look, that is already being done. A couple of hours on the Web, armed with a few tips, will lead you to an Aladdin's cave of rich, diverse, detailed reporting and analysis of China. (Try chinadigitaltimes.net and danwei.org as a first "open sesame.") Much of this is not fact-checked or balanced in a professional way, but it is subject to another kind of scrutiny, with bloggers mercilessly pointing out what they see as errors, distortions or omissions.

Meanwhile, leading Western journals such as the Economist, the New Yorker and the Atlantic carry long, original and thoroughly fact-checked articles from China. While I was in Beijing, I saw a report on BBC World News television about farmers who had given up their rural homes for urban development, having been promised a new school for their children. The promise had not yet been kept. Anti-China bias? Not at all. As it seeks truth from facts, the BBC is holding high the banner of Deng Xiaoping thought.

So where's the catch? In my lament at the top of this column, I was careful to refer to what most Western readers and viewers see most of the time. Starr, in his essay, makes a useful distinction between availability and exposure. China-news junkies can find a great daily hit. What is under threat is the broad, serendipitous daily exposure to news of the world that comes from turning the pages of a newspaper over your morning tea.

It's no use mewling over bygone glories of a probably mythical golden age of foreign reporting. The point now is to work out how to exploit the tremendous potential of new media so as to expose more of the people, more of the time, to reliable and interesting foreign news. More than just the future of journalism will depend on it.

Timothy Garton Ash, a contributing editor to Opinion,is a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution and professor of European studies at Oxford University.

4月17日《参考消息》摘译,题:西方媒体为何专盯中国负面新闻

【英国《卫报》网站4月16日文章】(实为美国《洛杉矶时报》文章——福禄祯祥注)题:我们越是需要了解更多外国新闻,收到的却越少(作者 英国牛律大学教授蒂莫西·加顿·阿什)

前不久我去中国的时候听到这样的抱怨,说西方媒体对中国的发展变化总是进行歪曲报道。我认为这有一定的道理,但理由与中国共产党员或民族主义的网民想像的不太一样。

大多数对中国不太热心的西方报纸读者和电视观众确实看到了许许多多关于西藏、腐败和公众不满意的报道。他们很少看到对共产主义制度的广泛支持度、仍有大批优秀学生加入共产党或政治经济改革试点的报道。

然而,这种倾向不是出于中国官员指责的“反华”政策或偏见。令很多中国人难以置信的是,他们自己的媒体是党和国家政策的体现,而西方国家的政府却与媒体几乎没有任何联系。最主要的原因在于西方商业新闻产业的经济学和职业动力。

在激烈争夺读者与观众的过程中,西方主流媒体往往盯住一些读者和观众熟知和感兴趣的少数话题。他们对西藏进行了如此多的报道,并不是因为他们是意识形态上的中国批评者,而是因为西藏能引起消费者的强烈兴趣和关注。

的确,他们对中国国内政策的新闻报道往往是耸人听闻的和负面的——但他们对自己国家的国内政治的报道也是如此。那些编辑和选取这些新闻的人只不过是服从于他们这个行业里的市场原则:越负面,越有人看;爆炸性新闻是最有市场的;好消息等于没有消息。“很多中国城市居民对日益提高的生活水平感到比较满意”不会成为帮助报纸热销的头条新闻。

西方主流媒体的中国报道中更大的问题并不在于其负面性,而在于考虑到中国日益增强的重要性和中国文化和社会与西方的巨大不同,对中国的报道太少了。西方媒体不必要减少对达赖的报道,但应当多写写组成异彩纷呈的中国画卷的其他故事。

遗憾的是,趋势却在向着相反的方向发展:大多数人阅读的报纸和观看的国内电视台中的外国新闻变少了。原因主要也是经济问题。收集国外新闻的成本太高。随着广告收入减少,花销巨大的驻外机构被关闭。对新闻来说,这是个坏消息。

4/16/2009

中国富翁与众不同?

Are China's Rich Different?

April 14, 2009 6:00 PM

作者:潘文(John Pomfret 华盛顿邮报编辑)
来源:作者博客Pomfret’s china
翻译:福禄祯祥http://fulue.com/

麦肯锡(McKinsey)最近发布的中国富翁调查非常有趣。我仔细看了里面的一些图片,我觉得,其描绘的是这个人民共和国的雅皮士(yuppie)生活。

该报告说,2008年,中国有1.6百万富裕家庭。到了2015年,富裕家庭将增加到4百多万,在全球排名第四,仅次于美国、日本和英国。(麦肯锡界定富裕家庭的标准是,收入超过25万元人民币——约3.65万美元的城市家庭)

该报告最有趣的是对中国富翁与众不同之处的讨论。首先,他们年轻。年轻人很多。45岁以下的占80%,而美国是30%,日本是19%。

其次,他们是暴富。大约半数富裕的消费者4年前还不富有,并且今天还不富裕的那部分年轻人中,一半多将在五六年内成为富翁。吁!在讨论暴发户。

他们的消费习惯很特别,并且变化很快。报告说,仅仅几年前,中国消费者购买的奢侈品大多是舶来品;今天,60%的奢侈品在中国大陆制造——这就解释了为什么中国许多商场有那么多的高档礼品店(几乎总是空荡荡)。某些人必将购买。

报告指出,因为中国的有钱人太年轻,一些公司调整了市场定位。比如兰蔻(Lancome),它通过强调必须趁早保持青春占领了化妆品的高端市场。因为很少在乎品牌,公司就强调它们的制作工艺。再比如,当杰尼亚(Zegna)开一家新店时,它就示范领带是如何制作的。

然而,中国人对专为中国市场生产的产品却非常敏感,认为那是一种侮辱。这是浪琴(Longines)所犯的错误。1980年代,浪琴自以为是地专为总过人建立了一条钟表生产线,结果损失惨重。它后来调整策略,现在中国已是它最大的市场。

2009-04-16 14:44:56

英汉对照:

Are China's Rich Different?

中国富翁与众不同?

April 14, 2009 6:00 PM

作者:潘文(John Pomfret 华盛顿邮报编辑)
来源:作者博客Pomfret’s china
翻译:福禄祯祥http://fulue.com/

There's a wonderful report out recently by McKinsey on China's rich. Let me go through a few of the factoids, which paint, I think, a telling picture of what it's like to be a yuppie in the People's Republic.

麦肯锡(McKinsey)最近发布的中国富翁调查非常有趣。我仔细看了里面的一些图片,我觉得,其描绘的是这个人民共和国的雅皮士生活。

In 2008, the report said China had 1.6 million wealthy households. By 2015, it will have more than 4 million, making it the world's fourth-largest country in terms of its number of wealthy households after the United States, Japan, and the United Kingdom. (McKinsey defines the number of wealthy households as urban households that make more than 250,000 RMB -- about $36,500. We can definitely debate whether McKinsey set the bar too low.)

该报告说,2008年,中国有1.6百万富裕家庭。到了2015年,富裕家庭将增加到4百多万,在全球排名第四,仅次于美国、日本和英国。(麦肯锡界定富裕家庭的标准是,收入超过25万元人民币——约3.65万美元的城市家庭)

The most interesting thing about the report is the argument that China's rich are different. First, they're younger. A lot younger. Eighty percent are under 45 compared with 30 percent in the United States and 19 percent in Japan.

该报告最有趣的是对中国富翁与众不同之处的讨论。首先,他们年轻。年轻人很多。45岁以下的占80%,而美国是30%,日本是19%。

Second, they are getting rich quicker. About one-half of today's wealthy consumers were not wealthy four years ago, and more than half of those who will be classified as wealthy in five to six years are not wealthy today. Whoa! Talk about nouveau riche.

其次,他们是暴富。大约半数富裕消费者4年前还不富有,并且今天还不富裕的那部分年轻人中,一半多将在五六年内成为富翁。吁!在讨论暴发户。

Their spending habits are also distinctive and changing rapidly. Only a few years ago, Chinese consumers made most of their luxury goods purchases abroad. Today, 60 percent are made in mainland China, the report said -- which definitely explains the presence of those high-end (almost always empty) upscale boutiques in many of China's malls. Somebody must be shopping.

他们的消费习惯很特别,并且变化很快。报告说,仅仅几年前,中国消费者购买的奢侈品大多是舶来品;今天,60%的奢侈品在中国大陆制造——这就解释了为什么中国许多商场有那么多的高档礼品店(几乎总是空荡荡)。某些人必将购买。

The report notes that because China's rich are so young, firms have changed the way they market. Lancome, for example, has won the top spot in cosmetics by emphasizing the need to take early action to fight aging. Because there is less brand-awareness, firms emphasize their workmanship. When Zegna opens up a new store, for example, it gives demos on how its ties are made.

报告指出,因为中国的有钱人太年轻,一些公司调整了市场定位。比如兰蔻(Lancome),它通过强调必须趁早保持青春占领了化妆品的高端市场。因为很少在乎品牌,公司就强调它们的工艺。再比如,当杰尼亚(Zegna)开一家新店时,它就示范领带是如何制作的。

The Chinese, however, are brand-aware enough to be insulted by special "made for the Chinese market." That was Longines' mistake. In the 1980s it launched a brash line of watches for Chinese only. It bombed. Longines switched tactics and now China is its biggest market.

然而,中国人对专为中国市场生产的产品却非常敏感,认为那是一种侮辱。这是浪琴(Longines)所犯的错误。1980年代,浪琴自以为是地专为总过人建立了一条钟表生产线,结果损失惨重。它后来调整策略,现在中国已是它最大的市场。

相关报道:

福布斯:中国的年轻富翁潮

城市消费市场的人口统计数据显示,文化大革命中国的富人越过一代,最高的人年龄在35岁以下或65岁以上。45岁到60岁是“失落的一代”,他们被迫上山下乡或去工厂工作,是大学停课首当其冲的受害者。

中国的年轻富翁潮

China's Affluent Youth Boom

http://www.forbes.com/2009/04/14/china-consumers-wealthy-markets-economy-luxury.html

Tina Wang, 04.14.09, 02:40 PM EDT

Most of China's newly affluent are younger than you think. They won't be in Beijing or Shanghai and they won't save like their parents.

美国《福布斯》杂志网站

4月14日

汉译来源:4月16日《参考消息》题:美刊称中国出现“年轻富翁潮”

目前,需求下降破坏了中国高端消费市场,越过当前萧条展望未来的公司必须了解一点:中国未来的富人将比世界其他地区的富人年轻得多。顾问们说,尽管人们大谈中国的高储备率,中国人仍然希望花掉大部分储蓄。中国市场研究集团负责人肖恩·赖因说:“32岁以下的人将是购买主力。让我震惊的是,没有几家公司真正意识到这一点。”

麦肯锡咨询公司本月初公布的一份报告发现,中国的富有消费者比美国和日本的富有消费者年轻20岁,其中高达80%的人不到45岁,美国和日本的这比例分别是30%和19%。麦肯锡报告界定的“富有”是年收入超过25万元人民币(约合3.7万美元)的城市家庭。

麦肯锡指出,这就是说,像兰蔻这类公司必须让抗衰老产品适应这些年轻人的需要。古奇和路易·威登明白“它们在中国大陆的生计要靠22岁到32岁的人维持”,所以它们为这部分人设计了售价500元至1000元的手袋。

城市消费市场的人口统计数据显示,文化大革命中国的富人越过一代,最高的人年龄在35岁以下或65岁以上。45岁到60岁是“失落的一代”,他们被迫上山下乡或去工厂工作,是大学停课首当其冲的受害者。

在中国,“富有”消费者要么是富裕的中产阶级,要么是货真价实的富翁。二者中间的人较少。中国市场研究集团的数据显示,富翁指资产超过100万美元者,有25万人。有2.5亿人的年收入在6000至1.5万美元之间,构成中产阶级。奢侈品部门也必须做出相应调整。富人基本不在大陆购买奢侈品。因为这里仿冒猖獗;他们可以去香港或欧洲买真货。但是,赖因说,富裕的中产阶级可能在大陆的商店购买不那么昂贵的商品。

最后,公司应该到成都和武汉这类二三级城市物色未来的富有消费者。麦肯锡估计,富有消费者每年将增加16%,这其中有四分之一将来自北京、上海、广州和重庆以外的城市。它说,太多的公司把目光集中在北京和上海的富人身上,其他城市的竞争将远远不像这两个城市那么激烈。

相关内容:

潘文:中国富翁与众不同?

4/15/2009

BBC记者看中国奥运场馆现况

中国奥运场馆现况

China's Olympic venues now

14:00 UK time, Tuesday, 14 April 2009

作者:James Reynolds (BBC驻京记者)
来源:作者博客James Reynolds‘s China
翻译:福禄祯祥http://fulue.com/



视频:James Reynolds在鸟巢现场报道



有一个很简单的问题一直困扰着大多数奥林匹克主办者:比赛结束后,怎么做才能回收空荡荡的场馆昂贵的投资?

北京相信它找到了问题的答案:让每个人来参观一下。

对于北京的奥运场馆来说,永远都是2008。只要花12美元买张票,你就能走进北京的奥运体育场,重新感受一下去年的某些荣耀。

在水立方,游客排着长队购买冰激淋和爆玉米花。他们涌进比赛主场地——游泳池,坐下,然后掏出相机。问题是这里并太多值得他们观看的。奥运游泳池灌满了水,但并没有人真的在里面游泳。

没什么可看——除了一池波平如镜的水——却并不影响参观者的心情。一位叫范东艳(音)的女士站在水池前摆姿势,双手抱头,像一名跳水运动员。她刚从悉尼旅行归来,在回家的途中,特意在北京停留,就为看看奥运场馆。

“我认为中国的奥运场馆非常棒,”她说,“它们是宏伟的建筑。在悉尼,我从车上看过他们的奥运场馆,我觉得跟中国的体育场馆没法比。”

与水立方相邻的鸟巢体育场如今已变成一种国家的圣殿——中国的圣母院(Notre Dame)或威斯敏斯特教堂。鸟巢业主已经决定禁止北京不太优秀的足球队在这里比赛,以免亵渎了这神圣的殿堂。

现如今,每天约有2万人买票到这个空荡荡——尽管神圣——的体育场一游。

“花钱来看这个什么活动也没有的体育场有点不可意思。”来自美国爱达荷州的游客Mark Peterson说。

在体育场里你能做一件事。万一你终其一生也没有赢得一块奥运金牌的话,你能花钱在领奖台上举行一场属于你自己的颁奖仪式。

近月内,体育场的业主计划在这里上演一场特殊的音乐会,抑或一场歌剧。体育场的投资人说,如果游客捧场,他们的投资的钱十年内就能收回。

“当然,我们正为吸引回头客而加倍努力,” 中信联合体(the CITIC Consortium Stadium Operation Company)的Zhang Hengli说,“但是中国有这么多人,我不需要全部13亿人都来参观,只要10亿人每人来一次,我认为我就能收回我的投资。”

如今,来北京奥运场馆差不多是一种爱国责任——到作为大国复兴象征的地方朝圣。奥运正向伦敦走来。但是,对于在北京的很多人来说,仍想复活2008的荣耀。


英汉对照:


China's Olympic venues now

中国奥运场馆现况


14:00 UK time, Tuesday, 14 April 2009

作者:James Reynolds (BBC驻京记者)
来源:作者博客James Reynolds‘s China
翻译:福禄祯祥http://fulue.com/

One simple question has defeated most Olympic hosts: what do you do with your collection of expensive and entirely empty stadiums once the Games are over?

Beijing believes it's come up with an answer: let everyone come in and have a good nose around.

At Beijing's Olympic venues, it is forever 2008. For $12 you can buy a ticket into Beijing's Olympic stadiums and relive some of last year's glories.

有一个很简单的问题一直困扰着大多数奥林匹克主办者:比赛结束后,怎么做才能回收空荡荡的场馆昂贵的投资?

北京相信它找到了问题的答案:让每个人来参观一下。

对于北京的奥运场馆来说,永远都是2008。只要花12美元买张票,你就能走进北京的奥运体育场,重新感受一下去年的某些荣耀。

At the Water Cube, lines of tourists queue up for ice cream and popcorn. They stream into the main arena, the swimming pool, take their seats and get out their cameras. The trouble is there's nothing much for them to see. The Olympic swimming pool is full of water but there's no-one actually swimming in it.

在水立方,游客排着长队购买冰激淋和爆玉米花。他们涌进比赛主场地——游泳池,坐下,然后掏出相机。问题是这里并太多值得他们观看的。奥运游泳池灌满了水,但并没有人真的在里面游泳。

The lack of anything to watch - apart from a pool of extremely still water - doesn't seem to bother any of the visitors. One woman, Fan Dongyan, poses in front of the pool with her hands above her head like a diver. She's on her way back home from a trip to Sydney. She's stopped off in Beijing specially to see the Olympic venues.

没什么可看——除了一池如镜的水——却并不影响参观者的心情。一位叫范东艳(音)的女士站在水池前摆姿势,双手抱头,像一名跳水运动员。她刚从悉尼旅行归来,在回家的途中,特意在北京停留,就为看看奥运场馆。

"I think China's Olympic stadiums are great," she says, "They're magnificent buildings. In Sydney I saw their Olympic stadium from the car. I think there is no comparison to China's stadiums."

The Bird's Nest athletics stadium next to the Water Cube has now become a kind of national cathedral - a Chinese Notre Dame or Westminster Abbey. The owners have decided that it mustn't be desecrated by allowing any of Beijing's not particularly good football teams to play their home games here.

“我认为中国的奥运场馆非常棒,”她说,“它们是宏伟的建筑。在悉尼,我从车上看过他们的奥运场馆,我觉得跟中国的体育场馆没法比。”

与水立方相邻的鸟巢体育场如今已变成一种国家的圣殿——中国的圣母院(Notre Dame)或威斯敏斯特教堂。鸟巢业主已经决定禁止北京不太优秀的足球队在这里比赛,以免亵渎了这神圣的殿堂。

So, for now, around 20,000 people every day buy tickets simply to get the chance to walk around an empty, albeit holy, stadium.

"It's a little weird to pay money to come into the stadium when there's nothing happening," says Mark Peterson, an American tourist from Idaho.

现如今,每天约有2万人买票到这个空荡荡——尽管神圣——的体育场一游。

“花钱来看这个什么活动也没有的体育场有点不可意思。”来自美国爱达荷州的游客Mark Peterson说。

There is one thing you can do inside the stadium. In case you've managed to go through your entire life without winning an Olympic gold medal, you can pay to have your own medal ceremony on a podium set up on the pitch.

在体育场里你能做一件事。万一你终其一生也没有赢得一块奥运金牌的话,你能花钱在领奖台上举行一场属于你自己的颁奖仪式。

In a few months' time, the stadium's owners plan to start staging occasional concerts - and even an opera. If tourists keep coming, the stadium's investors say they'll get their money back in about 10 years' time.

近月内,体育场的业主计划在这里上演一场特殊的音乐会,抑或一场歌剧。体育场的投资人说,如果游客捧场,他们的投资的钱十年内就能收回。

"Of course we are working hard towards the goal of getting customers to come to the stadium over and over again," says Zhang Hengli, from the CITIC Consortium Stadium Operation Company, "But China has such a big population. I don't need all 1.3bn people to visit. But if only one billion people come just once, I think I can recover my investment costs."

For now, coming to the Beijing Olympic stadium is almost a patriotic duty - a pilgrimage to the symbol of this country's resurrection as a great power. The Olympics may now be on their way to London. But many here in Beijing still want to relive the glories of 2008.

“当然,我们正为吸引回头客而加倍努力,” 中信联合体(the CITIC Consortium Stadium Operation Company)的Zhang Hengli说,“但是中国有这么多人,我不需要全部13亿人都来参观,只要10亿人每人来一次,我认为我就能收回我的投资。”

如今,来北京奥运场馆差不多是一种爱国责任——到作为大国复兴象征的地方朝圣。奥运正向伦敦走来。但是,对于在北京的很多人来说,仍想复活2008的荣耀。

福禄祯祥奥运专题★关注奥运对中国的影响

4/14/2009

东方和西方,儒家仍能对我们讲话

作者 牛津大学著名学者蒂莫西·加顿·阿什

加拿大《环球邮报》4月9日

4月14日《参考消息》摘译 题:从中国儒学复兴看人类文明对话

在中国,儒学复兴了。中国学者于丹所著《于丹<论语>心得》的销量已超过1000万,其中约600万显然为盗版书。她的这本书被称为中国版“心灵鸡汤”。在中国著名学府清华大学校园内曾有一尊毛主席的雕像,现在则耸立着一尊孔子的雕像。中国一家国家级电影制片厂准备筹资拍摄一部关于孔子的电影,香港影星周润发将饰演孔子。中国显然还有许多儒家私立学校。

儒学的复兴可以说是一件公私兼具、涉及社会和国家的大事。胡锦涛主席曾引述孔子说过的“和为贵”,大力宣扬共产党构建和谐社会、和谐世界的目标。几年后温家宝总理宣称,从孔子到孙中山,中华民族的传统文化有无数宝贵成分,其中他提到了“不同观点的沟通和协调以及分享共有的世界”。

在北京孔庙举办的一次展览上,一张挂图上明确标出了遍及全球的中国孔子学院所在地的位置。中国的孔子学院相当于德国的歌德学院和我们的英国文化协会。尽管这些孔子学院目前主要致力于教授中文,但这次展览显然暗示全世界都能从对孔子思想的更深理解中受益。

有一种学习这种儒家传统思想的过于简单化的方法,也有一种更为有趣的方法。那种过于简单化的方法是从儒家学说中寻找理解当代中国社会政治甚至外交政策的关键。这就是我所说的庸俗亨廷顿主义的一个例子。它是你在塞缪尔·亨廷顿的《文明冲突》中找到的文化决定论的简易版本:“中国人都是儒家学说的追随者,因此他们的行为会像这样……”

首先,儒家学说有许多差别很大的版本。政治理论家丹尼尔·贝尔就辨别出如下几种儒家学说:自由的儒家学说,官方或保守的儒家学说,左翼儒家学说以及非政治化的流行儒家学说(比如于丹的“心灵鸡汤”)。更重要的是,儒家学说在今天中国的综合性特征中只是一个组成成分。中国社会和政治制度的许多特征无需用儒家学说就能解释清楚。除了儒家学说,你在中国还可以看到列宁主义、资本主义、道教、西方消费社会、社会主义、中国古代法家学说的帝国主义传统等成分。

正是各种成分的混合体定义了中国模式。无论从哪方面看,中国模式尚未完全形成,因为中国依然是一个发展中国家。只有当中国更发达时,我们才会确切知道中国模式是什么。此时,如果我们必须为现今中国找到一个惟一标签的话,那么比儒家学说更恰当的一个候选词将是“拼凑主义”。秘密就在拼凑上。

因而可以断定,将与中国在政治和知性方面的对话想像成“文明之间的对话”是错误的。在这种想法下,我们西方人将我们所说的“西方价值观”摆上桌面,中国人将他们所说的“中国价值现”摆上桌面,然后我们再来看哪些价值观匹配,哪些不匹配。

这完全是胡说。根本就没有纯粹、地道、单独的西方文明或中国文明这样的东西。我们所有人上千年来一直在相互融合,尤其是最近200年来。文化纯洁性的说法只是一种矛盾修饰法。是的,在中国,儒家学说比天主教更重要,而在美国加州,天主教比懦家学说更重要。但在东方有更多的西方思潮,在西方有更多的东方思潮,这种情况比大多数人想像的更为普遍。此外,甚至在2500年前,当中国和欧洲的确是相距遥远的两个世界时,孔子谈到了一些柏拉图和索福克勒斯同样关注的问题,因为这些问题具有普遍性。

因此,西方人了解儒家学说的有趣方式很不一样。中国官方孔子学院将在这方面提供支持。这种方式的出发点是一个简单的命题:这里有一位伟大的思想家,他在今天仍能教我们一些东西。两千多年来,不同时代、不同流派的学者不仅解释了儒家学说,他们还在此过程中加入了他们自己的想法。我们应该试着去了解孔子和他们这些人,正如我们了解柏拉图、耶稣、佛和达尔文一样。这不是文明之间的对话,而是文明内部的对话。正是人类文明使得我们比动物更高明。

原文:

East and West, Confucianism speaks to us all

TIMOTHY GARTON ASH

From Thursday's Globe and Mail
April 9, 2009 at 12:00 AM EDT

BEIJING — When I was a young child, China was, for me, a vaguely comical Chinese man with a wispy mustache, dressed in an embroidered silk robe and conical hat, exclaiming in a funny accent: "Confucius he say ..." Later, it was black-and-white photos of a Mao-period sculpture of a prerevolutionary rent-collection courtyard, shown me by an enthusiastic English schoolmaster. Then it was the naively misinterpreted madness of the Cultural Revolution and the Red Guards. And now it is an American-educated Chinese academic in a dark suit, telling me in excellent English, "So, what Confucius says is ..."

Everyone knows that in China, Confucianism is back. A popularization of Confucius by a media-friendly academic, Yu Dan, has sold more than 10 million copies. Her book has been called "Chinese chicken soup for the soul." On the campus of Beijing's prestigious Tsinghua University, there used to be a statue of Chairman Mao; now there's Confucius. A Confucius film is to be made with funding from a state film company, with Chow Yun-Fat as the Master.

This is a private and public revival, a social and a party-state affair. "Confucius said, 'Harmony is something to be cherished,' " President Hu Jintao observed in 2005, promoting the Chinese Communist Party's proclaimed goals of a harmonious society and world. "From Confucius to Sun Yat-sen," Prime Minister Wen Jiabao averred a couple of years later, "the traditional culture of the Chinese nation has numerous precious elements." In his book China's New Confucianism, Montreal-born political theorist Daniel A. Bell quips that the CCP might one day be renamed the Chinese Confucian Party.

At an exhibition in the largest Confucian temple in Beijing, electric lights on a wall map pinpoint the spread of world branches of the Confucius Institute, a relatively new counterpart to the likes of Germany's Goethe Institute. While China's institutes are currently devoted mainly to teaching language, the exhibition clearly implies the benefit of Confucian thought.

There's a simplistic way to read this renaissance, and a more interesting one.

The simplistic way is to seek in Confucianism the key to understanding contemporary Chinese society, politics, even foreign policy. But for a start, there are many contrasting versions. Prof. Bell, for instance, distinguishes among liberal Confucianism, official or conservative Confucianism, left Confucianism and depoliticized pop Confucianism (Yu Dan's chicken soup).

Besides, Confucianism is just one ingredient in the eclectic mix characteristic of today's China. Many features of the country's society and political system can be described without any reference to Confucianism, and some would have the Master writhing in his tomb. You can discern elements of Leninism, capitalism, Taoism, Western consumer society, socialism, the imperial tradition of Legalism - and more.

It's precisely the mix that defines the Chinese model, which is anyway not yet fully formed. After all, China is still a developing country in every sense. Meanwhile, if we must seek a single label, then a better candidate would be Confectionism. The secret is in the confection.

It follows that it's a great mistake to conceive of a political and intellectual conversation with China as a "dialogue between civilizations." In this conception, Westerners put on the table what we call "Western values," the Chinese put on the table what they call "Chinese values," and then we see which pieces match.

Stuff and nonsense. There is no such thing as a pure, unadulterated, separate Western civilization or Chinese civilization. We have all been mixing up for centuries, and especially over the past two. There's more of the West in the East and of the East in the West than most people imagine. Moreover, even 2,500 years ago, when China and Europe really were worlds apart, Confucius was addressing some of the same issues as Plato and Sophocles, because these issues are universal.

So, the interesting way for Westerners to engage with Confucianism is quite different. This way starts from a simple proposition: Here was a great thinker who still has things to teach us. Rich schools of scholastic interpretation over more than two millennia not only reinterpreted Confucius but added new thoughts of their own. We should read him and them as we read Plato, Jesus, the Buddha, Darwin and their interpreters. This is not a dialogue between civilizations but a dialogue inside civilization.

For this conversation, most of us must depend on translators. In Beijing, I have been rereading Simon Leys's translation of The Analects of Confucius, with its notes full of vigorous cross-reference to Western writers. Of course, some passages are obscure or anachronistic. But many of the sayings attributed to Confucius breathe a remarkably fresh secular humanism.

I prefer his cautious formulation of the golden rule of reciprocity - "What you do not wish for yourself, do not impose upon others" - to the Christian one. What should government do? "Make the local people happy and attract migrants from afar." How should we best serve our political leader? "Tell him the truth, even if it offends him." Best of all: "One may rob an army of its commander-in-chief; one cannot deprive the humblest man of his free will."

If these are familiar thoughts in an unfamiliar place, there are also very distinctive emphases, such as that on a kind of extended family responsibility to generations both past and to come. Not such a bad idea, at a time when we are ravaging the planet that our grandparents left us.

Earlier this year, one of Britain's education officials reaped some mild satire for suggesting that his country's schoolchildren could benefit from studying Confucius. But couldn't we all? We would not merely learn something about the Chinese. We might even learn something about ourselves.

Timothy Garton Ash is a senior fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution and professor of European studies at Oxford University.

4/13/2009

精神疗法:走出气候困境的一扇门?

生态治疗师玛丽-杰妮•拉斯特指出,在西方文化里,无论内在外在都对野性自然有着一种恐惧。那么,在这个消费主义时代,我们如何才能找到一种和自然共处的方式?
http://www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/ch/2909

玛丽-杰妮•拉斯特分析了变化的心理任务,探讨我们应该用什么方式回应环境危机。那么古老的故事是如何压过眼前的现实的呢?
http://www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/ch/2912

未来的三大帝国

新美国基金会主席康纳认为,世界正迈向一个长期的冲突阶段,但并非国家或文明之间的冲突,而是帝国之间的冲突,尤以美国、欧洲和中国三大帝国的冲突为主

作者:胡利奥·塞萨尔·莫雷诺

阿根廷《民族报》

4月9日

美国总统奥巴马出席20国集团峰会和北约峰会,以及欧洲之行的圆满成功似乎巩固了美国在世界的地位,但仍未能消除这样一个疑问:在刚刚开始的21世纪,还将是惟一的超级大国主宰世界吗?还是在美国仍然是世界强国的同时,中国、欧洲、印度和其他新兴国家将同美国平起平坐,形成一个多极化的世界格局?

严重的国际经济和金融危机使发达国家和发展中国家都受到重创,使美国将在长期内保持霸权地位的说法遭到质疑,尽管我们所说的“新秩序”尚未呈现出明确的势头。

美国和欧洲的学术界深受这一疑问困扰。在上世纪90年代初,柏林墙倒塌之后不久,美国学者福山出版了著名的《历史的终结》一书,预言资本主义和自由民主制度终将胜利,,世界将因为缺乏冲突而经历数十年的“无聊”期。不久以后,亨廷顿的《文明的冲突》问世,书中预见了截然不同的前景:世界将成为文明之间而非国家之间激烈冲突的大舞台,其中宗教因素将扮演重要角色。2001年的9·11恐怖袭击和西方国家与穆斯林世界之间的冲突似乎为第二种理论提供了依据。

如今又有一位印度裔美国学者提出,一个新观点。曾任奥巴马竞选顾问、现任新美国基金会主席的帕拉格·康纳在他的新书《三个帝国》中提出了一个大胆的预测:世界正迈向一个长期的冲突阶段,但并非国家或文明之间的冲突,而是帝国之间的冲突,尤以美国、欧洲和中国三大帝国的冲突为主。康纳指出,未来世界将不再由种族和宗教身份来作主,而是由强大的军事、经济和人口中心来主宰。这似乎又回归到传统的历史观点,因为帝国的概念听上去已经非常古老了。

康纳分别对欧洲、伊斯兰世界、中国和美国进行了分析,指出西方在欧洲实现了美国在伊拉克未能完成的使命:输出民主。因为在柏林墙倒塌之后,刚刚脱离了苏联控制的整个东欧地区完全融入了西方民主。

关于伊斯兰世界,康纳认为,不能将伊斯兰世界看作单一的整体,而是要区别看待几个不同的伊斯兰现实,包括前苏联势力范围内的中亚地区;因巴以冲突而千疮百孔的中东地区;世俗的和宗教的阿拉伯世界之间的差异,以及在中国影响之下的马来西亚和印度尼西亚庞大的穆斯林群体。

书中强调,中国面临分裂主义的威胁,但这并不能阻止中国成为惟一能发展为帝国的第二世界国家,成为一个一党统治的帝国,成为比中国历史上任何—个朝代都更强大的帝国。

尽管俄罗斯拥有丰富的能源资源和强大的核实力,但由于缺乏真正的生产和经济机器,人口规模也不如苏联时期,俄罗斯将屈居第二世界的行列。

书中最引人注目的是康纳对美国未来的悲观情绪。他预计,经济疲弱、社会不平等现象日益加剧、犯罪率高等事实将使美国从第一世界跌至第二世界。

这不失为一种有趣的预测。当然,历史终将全部或部分证实或推翻他的说法。这已经不是第次提到“美帝国的衰落”了,但当前的金融危机似乎为这种说法又提供了有力的支持。奥巴马的到来似乎将“美国梦”唤醒,对于大部分美国人和西方人来说,这不意味着衰落,而是重建和新的起点,是在新的经济、政治和道德基础上重塑美国在世界的地位。

译文来源:4月11日《参考消息》 题:世界迈向“三大帝国”冲突阶段

出版审查的“功劳”


Corin Tellado supporting an internet claim for the asturian language. (2008-08-12 Source http://www.flickr.com/photos/doilacara/2756903496/ Author http://www.doilacara.net/)

(福禄祯祥4月13日文)专制政体为了维护统治所采用的出版审查罪恶罄竹难书,不过,事实也证明,臭名昭著的审查制度至少还有一点“功劳”,比如有助于某种写作风格的形成。

4月11日去世的西班牙最多产小说家科林·特利亚多(Corín Tellado),就把她自己严谨的写作风格的形成归功于佛朗西斯科·佛朗哥将军实行的右翼独裁体制。自上世纪30年代起,佛朗哥铁腕统治西班牙近40年,直到他1975年去世。

法新社报道,特利亚多在她的个人网站上说,“是审查促成了我的写作风格,一些小说从审查机构交换给我时,很多地方都被画了线,你能看到的是黑乎乎的一片。他们教会了我要暗讽,多提建议少指出问题。”

("As for my style, it was censorship that dictated it. Some novels came back with so much underlined text that all you could see was black. They taught me to insinuate, to suggest more than to show." )

科林特利亚多1927年4月25日出生于西班牙北部渔村Viavelez,19岁发表第一部小说《大胆的赌注》,在她半个世纪的写作生涯中,共出版了4000余本小说,销量超过4亿册。这使她作为西班牙语图书销量最多的作者于1994年被载入吉尼斯世界纪录。她的许多小说被改编为广播剧、电影或电视肥皂剧。

自不待言,目前某些国家变本加厉的网络审查,也绝对“有助于”某种写作风格的形成。(文/福禄祯祥http://www.fulue.com/

4/09/2009

AFP: China dissident becomes Tibet's unlikely champion

11 hours ago

WASHINGTON (AFP) — As China's leadership works to glorify its rule in Tibet, one of China's most prominent dissidents is on a very different mission -- to document his country's atrocities in the Himalayan land.

Harry Wu, who spent nearly two decades toiling in labor camps as a political prisoner, recently opened an exhibition at his Washington museum on suffering in Chinese-ruled Tibet.

...

http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5iF1o9kBRmGexGmc-1bI3H1RPjOEQ

相关链接:

福禄祯祥:雅虎杨致远放下屠刀立地“Laogai” 11/9/2008

日本大使馆呼吁在华日本人提防手足口病

共同社:日本大使馆呼吁在华日本人提防手足口病

04.08 15:37
  
【共同社北京4月8日电】北京的日本大使馆7日通过官方主页与电子邮件,呼吁家有婴幼儿的在华日本人提防正在中国全国范围内流行的手足口病。

中国卫生部公布的数据显示,截至3月26日中国已有4万余人感染手足口病,其中18人死亡。5月至7月将是该病的高发期,感染人数可能进一步增多,因此大使馆提醒国民注意。

大使馆称,预防该病重在勤用肥皂洗手并注意食品与饮水卫生。


在中国日本国大使館:手足口病の流行(参考情報)

2009年4月

在中国日本大使館

本年3月以降、手足口病の流行が中国全土へ拡大しています。衛生部の発表によれば、本年1月から3月26日までに中国全土で41,846名が発症し、18名が死亡しました。全国30省・自治区で広く感染者がでていますが、中でも河南省と山東省で流行しており、また医療衛生状態があまりよくない農村地区での流行が主となっています。

日本では、この病気で死亡する例は殆どなく、この病気に対して過度に心配する必要はないと言われていますが、感染のピークは晩春から初夏(5月~7月)にかけてであることから、衛生部も注意を呼びかけており、特に小さいお子様をお持ちの在留邦人の皆様におかれては、以下の点に十分にご注意ください。

(1)手足口病に罹るのは、主に乳幼児・小児で、その症状は発熱、手・足・口に発疹・水疱が見られます。原因については、今回の流行では、エンテロウィルス(EV71)が主流となっています。

(2)一般的には、発熱で始まる軽い病気で、ほとんどの人が1週間から10日程度で自然に治ります。合併症もほとんどありませんが、まれに髄膜炎等の中枢神経症状が発生し、入院が必要となります。突然の高熱、あるいは微熱でも持続するもの、嘔吐を繰り返すもの、意識状態に変化が見られるものには慎重に対処し、早期に医師の診察を受ける必要があります。

(3)潜伏期は3-6日で、感染経路は経口、飛沫、接触ですが、症状が消失した後も3-4週間は排便中にウィルスが排泄されるため、注意が必要とされます。


(4)予防策としては、ワクチンなどの積極的な予防方法はなく、乳幼児のおしめなど排泄物に対する注意、石けんによる手洗いの励行、食品や飲料水への注意といった一般的な衛生面での管理が重要です。

手足口病の詳しい情報については下記サイトで紹介されています。
「国立感染症研究所感染症情報センターホームページ(手足口病)」
http://idsc.nih.go.jp/disease/hfmd/index.html
「日本医師会手足口病Q&A」
http://www.med.or.jp/kansen/teashi_qa.html